Article

Low usage of government healthcare facilities for acute respiratory infections in guatemala: implications for influenza surveillance.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta GA, 30333 USA.
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.08). 11/2011; 11:885. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-885
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections in hospitals and influenza-like illness in ambulatory clinics is recommended to assist in global pandemic influenza preparedness. Healthcare utilization patterns will affect the generalizability of data from sentinel sites and the potential to use them to estimate burden of disease. The objective of this study was to measure healthcare utilization patterns in Guatemala to inform the establishment of a sentinel surveillance system for influenza and other respiratory infections, and allow estimation of disease burden.
We used a stratified, two-stage cluster survey sample to select 1200 households from the Department of Santa Rosa. Trained interviewers screened household residents for self-reported pneumonia in the last year and influenza-like illness (ILI) in the last month and asked about healthcare utilization for each illness episode.
We surveyed 1131 (94%) households and 5449 residents between October and December 2006 and identified 323 (6%) cases of pneumonia and 628 (13%) cases of ILI. Treatment for pneumonia outside the home was sought by 92% of the children <5 years old and 73% of the persons aged five years and older. For both children <5 years old (53%) and persons aged five years and older (31%) who reported pneumonia, private clinics were the most frequently reported source of care. For ILI, treatment was sought outside the home by 81% of children <5 years old and 65% of persons aged five years and older. Government ambulatory clinics were the most frequently sought source of care for ILI both for children <5 years old (41%) and persons aged five years and older (36%).
Sentinel surveillance for influenza and other respiratory infections based in government health facilities in Guatemala will significantly underestimate the burden of disease. Adjustment for healthcare utilization practices will permit more accurate estimation of the incidence of influenza and other respiratory pathogens in the community.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
159 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to respiratory infections.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83600. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654). Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively). A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria) and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34%) was low. Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93427. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI), but little is known about how it compares with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Central America.Objectives In this study, we describe hospitalized cases of HMPV- and RSV-ARI in Guatemala.Methods We conducted surveillance at three hospitals (November 2007–December 2012) and tested nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for HMPV and RSV using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We calculated incidence rates, and compared the epidemiology and outcomes of HMPV-positive versus RSV-positive and RSV-HMPV-negative cases.ResultsWe enrolled and tested specimens from 6288 ARI cases; 596 (9%) were HMPV-positive and 1485 (24%) were RSV-positive. We observed a seasonal pattern of RSV but not HMPV. The proportion HMPV-positive was low (3%) and RSV-positive high (41%) for age <1 month, whereas these proportions were similar (~20%) by age 2 years. The annual incidence of hospitalized HMPV-ARI was 102/100 000 children aged <5 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 75–178], 2·6/100 000 persons aged 5–17 years (95%CI: 1·2–5·0), and 2·6/100 000 persons aged ≥18 years (95%CI: 1·5–4·9). Among children aged <5 years, HMPV-positive cases were less severe than HMPV-RSV-negative cases after adjustment for confounders [odds ratio (OR) for intensive care = 0·63, 95% CI 0·47–0·84]; OR for death = 0·46, 95% CI 0·23–0·92).Conclusions Human metapneumovirus is a substantial contributor to ARI hospitalization in Guatemala, but HMPV hospitalizations are less frequent than RSV and, in young children, less severe than other etiologies. Preventive interventions should take into account the wide variation in incidence by age and unpredictable timing of incidence peaks.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 04/2014; · 1.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
26 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014