Hispanic ethnicity and vascular access use in patients initiating hemodialysis in the United States.
ABSTRACT Hispanics are the largest minority in the United States (comprising 16.3% of the US population) and have 1.5 times the age-, sex-, and race-adjusted incidence of ESRD compared with non-Hispanics. Poor health care access and low-quality care generally received by Hispanics are well documented. However, little is known regarding dialysis preparation of Hispanic patients with progressive CKD.
Using data from Medical Evidence Report form CMS-2728-U3, 321,996 adult patients of white or black race were identified who initiated hemodialysis (HD) between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008. The form captures Hispanic ethnicity, vascular access use at first outpatient HD, sociodemographic characteristics, and comorbidities. This study also examined whether use of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) was reported.
AVF/AVG use was reported in 14.5% of Hispanics and 17.6% in non-Hispanics (P<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.83-0.88), indicating that Hispanics were 15% less likely to use AVG/AVF for their first outpatient HD. Adjustment for age, sex, and race, as well as a large number of comorbidities and frailty indicators, did not change this association (PR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.88). Further adjustment for timing of first predialysis nephrology care, however, attenuated the PR by two-thirds (PR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97).
Hispanics are less likely to use arteriovenous access for first outpatient HD compared with non-Hispanics, which seems to be explained by variation in the access to predialysis nephrology care.
- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2012; 7(2):196-8. DOI:10.2215/CJN.13021211
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ABSTRACT: The number of elderly (≥65 years) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis is rapidly increasing. Vascular access outcomes remain contradictory and understudied across different elderly populations. We hypothesized age might influence primary autogenous fistula use and outcomes in a predominantly diabetic multiethnic Asian ESRD population. Demographic and clinical factors affecting fistula patency and maturation were retrospectively compared among patients with incident ESRD aged <65 and ≥65 years at a single center. Fistula patency was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test comparison. We analyzed 280 primary fistulas (59% radiocephalic, 33% brachiocephalic, and 8% brachiobasilic) in this cohort consisting of 31.8% aged ≥65 years, 50% Chinese, 39% Malay, 42% women, and 70% diabetic. One- and 2-year primary and secondary patency in patients aged <65 vs ≥65 years were comparable: 41.3% vs 36.7% and 28.7% vs 24.4% (P = .547) and 57.7% vs 56.8% and 47.1% vs 47.2% (P = .990). On multivariate analysis, only non-Chinese, dialysis initiation with tunneled catheters, and surgical/endovascular interventions affected fistula survival hazard ratios (HR): 0.622 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.00), 0.549 (95% CI, 0.297-0.841), and 2.503 (95% CI, 1.695-3.697), respectively. Nonmaturation and intervention rates were also similar at 56.7% vs 61.8% and 34% vs 32.2% at 3 and 6 months and 0.31 vs 0.36 per access year, respectively (P > .05). Females and tunneled catheters were the only risk factors for nonmaturation (HR, 1.568; 95% CI, 1.148-1.608, and HR, 1.623; 95% CI, 1.400-1.881, respectively). A primary fistula strategy in incident elderly ESRD is feasible and does not result in inferior outcomes. Age should therefore not be a determinant for primary fistula creation.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 05/2012; 56(2):433-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2012.01.063
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reports on the racial and ethnic differences in dialysis patient survival rates have been inconsistent. The literature suggests that these survival differences may be modified by age as well as categorizing white race as inclusive of Hispanic ethnicity. The goal of this study was to better understand these associations by examining survival among US dialysis patients by age, ethnicity, and race. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Between 1995 and 2009, 1,282,201 incident dialysis patients ages 18 years or older were identified in the United States Renal Data System. Dialysis survival was compared among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics overall and stratified by seven age groups. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 22.3 months. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, a lower mortality risk was seen in Hispanics in all age groups. Consequently, when Hispanic patients were excluded from the white race, the mortality rates in white race all increased. Using non-Hispanic whites as the reference, a significantly lower mortality risk for non-Hispanic blacks was consistently observed in all age groups above 30 years (unadjusted hazard ratios ranged from 0.70 to 0.87; all P<0.001). In the 18- to 30-years age group, there remained an increased mortality risk in blacks versus non-Hispanic whites after adjustment for case mix (adjusted hazard ratio=1.19, 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk was lowest in Hispanics, intermediate in non-Hispanic blacks, and highest in non-Hispanic whites. This pattern generally holds in all age groups except for the 18- to 30-years group, where the adjusted mortality rate for non-Hispanic blacks exceeds the adjusted mortality rate of non-Hispanic whites.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2013; 8(6). DOI:10.2215/CJN.09180912