FBXO11 targets BCL6 for degradation and is inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

Department of Pathology, NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 11/2011; 481(7379):90-3. DOI: 10.1038/nature10688
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BCL6 is the product of a proto-oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of human B-cell lymphomas. By binding specific DNA sequences, BCL6 controls the transcription of a variety of genes involved in B-cell development, differentiation and activation. BCL6 is overexpressed in the majority of patients with aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma in adulthood, and transgenic mice constitutively expressing BCL6 in B cells develop DLBCLs similar to the human disease. In many DLBCL patients, BCL6 overexpression is achieved through translocation (~40%) or hypermutation of its promoter (~15%). However, many other DLBCLs overexpress BCL6 through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BCL6 is targeted for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation by a SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the orphan F-box protein FBXO11 (refs 5, 6). The gene encoding FBXO11 was found to be deleted or mutated in multiple DLBCL cell lines, and this inactivation of FBXO11 correlated with increased levels and stability of BCL6. Similarly, FBXO11 was either deleted or mutated in primary DLBCLs. Notably, tumour-derived FBXO11 mutants displayed an impaired ability to induce BCL6 degradation. Reconstitution of FBXO11 expression in FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells promoted BCL6 ubiquitylation and degradation, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell death. FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells generated tumours in immunodeficient mice, and the tumorigenicity was suppressed by FBXO11 reconstitution. We reveal a molecular mechanism controlling BCL6 stability and propose that mutations and deletions in FBXO11 contribute to lymphomagenesis through BCL6 stabilization. The deletions/mutations found in DLBCLs are largely monoallelic, indicating that FBXO11 is a haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor gene.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Germinal center (GC) reaction is a T cell-dependent process in which activated B cells undergo clonal expansion and functional maturation to produce high affinity antibodies and differentiate into memory B cells(1). Here we demonstrate a new role of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 in GC B cell development. We found that during B cell differentiation stage there was an elevated expression of BRD4 in GC B cells and inhibition of BRD4 by small molecule inhibitors led to the suppression of GC formation and correspondent antibody responses in a Td antigen immunization model. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of BRD4 in primary GC B cell differentiation and B cell lymphoma were mediated through the impaired phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κBp65 and further down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) expression. Thus this study reveals a novel function of BRD4 in controlling the GC B cell development pathway. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Cellular Immunology 01/2015; 294(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.01.010 · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Snail family of transcription factors are core inducers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that the F-box protein FBXO11 recognizes and promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation of multiple Snail family members including Scratch. The association between FBXO11 and Snai1 in vitro is independent of Snai1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FBXO11 in mesenchymal cells reduces Snail protein abundance and cellular invasiveness. Conversely, depletion of endogenous FBXO11 in epithelial cancer cells causes Snail protein accumulation, EMT, and tumor invasion, as well as loss of estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer cells. Expression of FBXO11 is downregulated by EMT-inducing signals TGFβ and nickel. In human cancer, high FBXO11 levels correlate with expression of epithelial markers and favorable prognosis. The results suggest that FBXO11 sustains the epithelial state and inhibits cancer progression. Inactivation of FBXO11 in mice leads to neonatal lethality, epidermal thickening, and increased Snail protein levels in epidermis, validating that FBXO11 is a physiological ubiquitin ligase of Snail. Moreover, in C. elegans, the FBXO11 mutant phenotype is attributed to the Snail factors as it is suppressed by inactivation/depletion of Snail homologs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the FBXO11-Snail regulatory axis is evolutionarily conserved and critically governs carcinoma progression and mammalian epidermal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cancer letters 03/2015; 362(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.03.037 · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The microRNA miR-21 is overexpressed in most human cancers and accumulating evidence indicates it functions as an oncogene. Since miRNAs suppress the expression of their target genes, we hypothesized that some miR-21 targets may act as tumor suppressors, and thus their expression would be anticipated to be reduced by the high miR-21 levels observed in various human cancers. By microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified and validated FBXO11 (a member of the F-box subfamily lacking a distinct unifying domain) as a miR-21 target gene. FBXO11 is a component of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that targets proteins for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. By loss of function and gain of function studies, we show that FBXO11 acts as a tumor suppressor, promotes apoptosis and mediates the degradation of the oncogenic protein BCL6. The critical role that FBXO11 plays in miR-21-mediated tumorigenesis was demonstrated by a rescue experiment, in which silencing FBXO11 in miR-21KD cancer cells restored their high tumorigenicity. Expression of miR-21 and FBXO11 are inversely correlated in tumor tissue, and their expression correlates with patient survival and tumor grade. High FBXO11 expression correlates with better patient survival and lower tumor grade consistent with its tumor suppressor activity. In contrast high miR-21 expression, which correlates with poor patient survival and higher tumor grade, is consistent with its oncogenic activity. Our results identify FBXO11 as a novel miR-21 target gene, and demonstrate that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 decreases the expression of FBXO11, which normally acts as a tumor suppressor, and thereby promotes tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2015; 290(10). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.632125 · 4.60 Impact Factor