FBXO11 targets BCL6 for degradation and is inactivated in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
ABSTRACT BCL6 is the product of a proto-oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of human B-cell lymphomas. By binding specific DNA sequences, BCL6 controls the transcription of a variety of genes involved in B-cell development, differentiation and activation. BCL6 is overexpressed in the majority of patients with aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma in adulthood, and transgenic mice constitutively expressing BCL6 in B cells develop DLBCLs similar to the human disease. In many DLBCL patients, BCL6 overexpression is achieved through translocation (~40%) or hypermutation of its promoter (~15%). However, many other DLBCLs overexpress BCL6 through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BCL6 is targeted for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation by a SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the orphan F-box protein FBXO11 (refs 5, 6). The gene encoding FBXO11 was found to be deleted or mutated in multiple DLBCL cell lines, and this inactivation of FBXO11 correlated with increased levels and stability of BCL6. Similarly, FBXO11 was either deleted or mutated in primary DLBCLs. Notably, tumour-derived FBXO11 mutants displayed an impaired ability to induce BCL6 degradation. Reconstitution of FBXO11 expression in FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells promoted BCL6 ubiquitylation and degradation, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell death. FBXO11-deleted DLBCL cells generated tumours in immunodeficient mice, and the tumorigenicity was suppressed by FBXO11 reconstitution. We reveal a molecular mechanism controlling BCL6 stability and propose that mutations and deletions in FBXO11 contribute to lymphomagenesis through BCL6 stabilization. The deletions/mutations found in DLBCLs are largely monoallelic, indicating that FBXO11 is a haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor gene.
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ABSTRACT: Zinc is an essential micronutrient playing fundamental roles in cellular metabolism. It acts mostly through binding a wide range of proteins, thus affecting a broad spectrum of biological processes, which include cell division, growth and differentiation. Full annotation of zinc-binding proteins showed them to represent about 10 % of the human proteome, with over 300 enzymes containing zinc ions within their catalytic domains. Also, hundreds of key regulatory proteins, including transcription factors, require zinc for their activity. In this study, the whole set of zinc-binding proteins together with their direct interactors was listed and defined as the zinc proteome (ZNP). We interrogated pathway analysis tools to identify the cellular processes that are predicted to be affected by zinc availability. Network and functional enrichment analyses highlighted biological processes potentially affected by deregulated zinc homeostasis. This computational approach was also tested on a real case study: The possible involvement of ZNP network proteins in Crohn's disease pathogenesis was assessed on genes transcriptionally regulated in the intestine of patients affected by this condition. The analysis produced a network of pathways likely to be influenced by zinc and associated with Crohn's disease. These results highlight a central role for zinc in the tissue remodeling process which occurs upon gut inflammation, pointing at novel disease pathways whose effect could be worsened by zinc dyshomeostasis and impaired zinc fluxes in specific damaged areas. Overall, our computational approach could provide novel insights into pathological conditions and could therefore be used to drive mechanistic research in under-investigated fields of research. An interactive version of the determined ZNP network is available at URL http://188.8.131.52/ZNnetwork/ .Genes & Nutrition 11/2014; 9(6):436. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 acts as an intracellular mediator. IL-32α interacts with many intracellular molecules, but there are no reports of interaction with a transcriptional repressor BCL6. In this study, we showed that PMA induces an interaction between IL-32α, PKCε, and BCL6, forming a trimer. To identify the mechanism of the interaction, we treated cells with various inhibitors. In HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines, treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor, PKCε inhibitor, and PKCδ inhibitor decreased BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. MAPK inhibitors and classical PKC inhibitor did not decrease PMA-induced BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. Further, the pan-PKC inhibitor and PKCε inhibitor disrupted PMA-induced interaction between IL-32α and BCL6. These data demonstrate that the intracellular interaction between IL-32α and BCL6 is induced by PMA-activated PKCε. PMA induces post-translational modification of BCL6 by conjugation to SUMO-2, while IL-32α inhibits. PKCε inhibition eliminated PMA-induced SUMOylation of BCL6. Inhibition of BCL6 SUMOylation by IL-32α affected the cellular function and activity of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 in THP-1 cells. Thus, we showed that IL-32α is a negative regulator of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. IL-32α inhibits BCL6 SUMOylation by activating PKCε, resulting in the modulation of BCL6 target genes and cellular functions of BCL6.Oncotarget 08/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The microRNA miR-21 is overexpressed in most human cancers and accumulating evidence indicates it functions as an oncogene. Since miRNAs suppress the expression of their target genes, we hypothesized that some miR-21 targets may act as tumor suppressors, and thus their expression would be anticipated to be reduced by the high miR-21 levels observed in various human cancers. By microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified and validated FBXO11 (a member of the F-box subfamily lacking a distinct unifying domain) as a miR-21 target gene. FBXO11 is a component of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that targets proteins for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. By loss of function and gain of function studies, we show that FBXO11 acts as a tumor suppressor, promotes apoptosis and mediates the degradation of the oncogenic protein BCL6. The critical role that FBXO11 plays in miR-21-mediated tumorigenesis was demonstrated by a rescue experiment, in which silencing FBXO11 in miR-21KD cancer cells restored their high tumorigenicity. Expression of miR-21 and FBXO11 are inversely correlated in tumor tissue, and their expression correlates with patient survival and tumor grade. High FBXO11 expression correlates with better patient survival and lower tumor grade consistent with its tumor suppressor activity. In contrast high miR-21 expression, which correlates with poor patient survival and higher tumor grade, is consistent with its oncogenic activity. Our results identify FBXO11 as a novel miR-21 target gene, and demonstrate that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 decreases the expression of FBXO11, which normally acts as a tumor suppressor, and thereby promotes tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.The Journal of biological chemistry. 01/2015;