Associations of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids with bone mineral density in elderly women.
ABSTRACT Significance of dietary fatty acids on bone health is not clear, and the evidence is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women.
Subjects (n=554) were drawn from the Kuopio OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study. At baseline they filled a 3-day food record and a questionnaire on lifestyle factors, diseases and medications. BMD was measured at lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and total body by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 3 years. The associations between dietary fatty acids and BMD were analyzed by a linear mixed model adjusting for potential dietary and non-dietary confounders.
Our findings suggested a positive relationship between the dietary PUFAs and BMD at lumbar spine and in total body but not at femoral neck. Further analyses revealed that these results were due to associations among the women without hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. Among them, the intake of total PUFAs as well the intakes of linoleic and linolenic acids and total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly associated with BMD at lumbar spine; P for trend over the quartiles ranged between 0.013 and 0.001. Similarly, significant associations were demonstrated for total body BMD and fatty acids with an exception of total PUFA. No significant associations were found among women with HT at baseline.
Our findings among elderly women without HT support the suggested beneficial effect of dietary PUFAs on bone health.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolites derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation. Such cells can differentiate into different cellular types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Aging favors the bone marrow MSC differentiation toward the former, causing a loss of bone density associated with pathologies like osteoporosis. The omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) favors MSC adipogenesis to a greater extent than omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this work, we study the joint action of both PUFA. Thus, not induced and induced to adipocyte or osteoblast MSC were treated with 20 μM of each PUFA (either AA, AA + DHA or AA + EPA). The expression of osteogenic and adipogenic molecular markers, the alox15b lipoxygenase gene expression and the 5-, 8-, 11-, 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) derived from the AA metabolism in the culture media were determined. The results show that the adipogenesis induction of AA is not suppressed by the joint presence of EPA and DHA. In fact, both increased the adipogenic effect of AA on MSC differentiated into osteoblasts. The different HETE concentrations increased in cultures supplemented with AA, albeit such concentrations were lower in the cultures induced to differentiate, mainly at day 21 after the induction. Furthermore, the reduction in the HETE concentration was correlated with a higher expression of the alox15b gene. These results highlight the PUFA metabolism differences between uninduced and induced MSC to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts, besides the relevant role of the lipoxygenase gene expression in adipogenesis induction.Genes & Nutrition 01/2014; 9(1):375. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: [In Process Citation].Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2014; 39(1):82-94. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n-3 (ω-3) fatty acid found mostly in plant foods such as flaxseed, walnuts, and vegetable oils, including canola and soybean oils. Most of the health benefits observed for n-3 fatty acids have been attributed to the marine-derived long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, because of the strength of evidence from both epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, the observed cardioprotective and other health effects of ALA have been credited to its precursor role in converting to EPA in the body. The promotion of fatty fish consumption for its documented health benefits may not be practical for those who are concerned with the unsustainability of marine sources or who avoid eating fish for a variety of reasons. ALA-rich plant sources are more abundant and may serve as a suitable alternate. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the evidence for the health benefits of ALA. The purpose of this review is to present the evidence from recent studies on the association between ALA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and fracture risk. The potential mechanisms that explain these associations will also be briefly discussed.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor