Associations of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids with bone mineral density in elderly women
ABSTRACT Significance of dietary fatty acids on bone health is not clear, and the evidence is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women.
Subjects (n=554) were drawn from the Kuopio OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study. At baseline they filled a 3-day food record and a questionnaire on lifestyle factors, diseases and medications. BMD was measured at lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and total body by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 3 years. The associations between dietary fatty acids and BMD were analyzed by a linear mixed model adjusting for potential dietary and non-dietary confounders.
Our findings suggested a positive relationship between the dietary PUFAs and BMD at lumbar spine and in total body but not at femoral neck. Further analyses revealed that these results were due to associations among the women without hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. Among them, the intake of total PUFAs as well the intakes of linoleic and linolenic acids and total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly associated with BMD at lumbar spine; P for trend over the quartiles ranged between 0.013 and 0.001. Similarly, significant associations were demonstrated for total body BMD and fatty acids with an exception of total PUFA. No significant associations were found among women with HT at baseline.
Our findings among elderly women without HT support the suggested beneficial effect of dietary PUFAs on bone health.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a need to understand the role of nutrition, beyond calcium and vitamin D, in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in adults. Results regarding soy compounds on bone density and bone turnover are inconclusive perhaps due to differences in dose and composition or in study population characteristics. The skeletal benefit of black cohosh and red clover are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use may benefit elderly individuals with low serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels, but even in this group, there are inconsistent benefits to bone density (BMD). Higher fruit and vegetable intakes may relate to higher BMD. The skeletal benefit of flavonoids, carotenoids, omega-3-fatty acids, and vitamins A, C, E and K are limited to observational data or a few clinical trials, in some cases investigating pharmacologic doses. Given limited data, it would be better to get these nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Potassium bicarbonate may improve calcium homeostasis but with little impact on bone loss. High homocysteine may relate to fracture risk, but the skeletal benefit of each B vitamin is unclear. Magnesium supplementation is likely only required in persons with low magnesium levels. Data are very limited for the role of nutritional levels of boron, strontium, silicon and phosphorus in bone health. A nutrient rich diet with adequate fruits and vegetables will generally meet skeletal needs in healthy individuals. For most healthy adults, supplementation with nutrients other than calcium and vitamin D may not be required, except in those with chronic disease and the frail elderly.Osteoporosis International 11/2012; 24(3). DOI:10.1007/s00198-012-2214-4 · 4.17 Impact Factor
- Journal of research in medical sciences 12/2012; 17(12):1094-5. · 0.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Improvement of peak bone mass in younger age and reducing bone loss in aging are two strategies to reduce the risk for developing osteoporosis. Modulating intestinal calcium absorption by modifying the diet can contribute to improvement of bone mass, and reduction of inflammation during menopause can help reduce the risk of bone loss. Calcium absorption takes place via an active process in the duodenum, modulated by active vitamin D, or by passive paracellular absorption that can take place throughout the intestine. Prebiotics are nondigestible carbohydrates which promote bacterial growth in the colon. Fermentation by the bacteria results in the production of organic acids which reduce the pH in the large intestine and may improve solubility of minerals increasing passive diffusion via the paracellular pathway. Increased cell proliferation and hypertrophy of the colon wall have also been reported, while some authors also report increased expression of calbindin-D9k, the protein responsible for carrying calcium through the intestinal cell. While the mechanism by which probiotics improve calcium absorption has not been proven, it is possible that the mechanism is similar to that of the prebiotics. Another dietary component that can affect intestinal calcium absorption is long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). These have been shown to improve calcium absorption by modulating the action of vitamin D in the intestine, modulating intestinal membrane composition and thereby increasing activity of the membrane pumps responsible for transport of minerals across the basolateral membranes. The omega 3 LCPUFAs also have specific effects on bone cells and reduce inflammation which may be of benefit to bone especially during menopause. In addition, LCPUFAs may have a prebiotic effect, modulating gut microflora. The possible contribution of these dietary components to calcium absorption and bone maintenance in rats and younger as well as older adults is presented.Nutritional Influences on Bone Health, 01/2013: pages 133-145; , ISBN: 978-1-4471-2768-0