Inhibition of PCDD/F by adding sulphur compounds to the feed of a hazardous waste incinerator
ABSTRACT Sulphur compounds, including (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and pyrite, were tested as suppressants in a hazardous waste incineration facility. The test results suggested that adding sulphur compounds only slightly reduced PCDD/F stack emissions; this restricted effect was attributed to the release of fly ash in large amounts during the sulphur adding experiments, i.e., it was due to a malfunctioning of the baghouse filter. Nevertheless, for the combined flow of flue gas+fly ash a reduction of more than 50% was achieved for the total PCDD/F concentrations and the total toxic concentrations, and an even higher inhibition capability was observed for PCDD. Also, a simulation of the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions by sulphur dioxide was conducted in the domain of experimental interest. Deactivation of catalysts, which promote PCDD/F formation, was found to be the dominant inhibition mechanism in low temperature PCDD/F formation. SO(2) could also inhibit the formation of molecular Cl(2) via the Deacon reaction, but that was not the main reason for inhibition.
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ABSTRACT: Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.Atmospheric Environment 05/2015; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.070 · 3.06 Impact Factor
Aerosol and Air Quality Research 01/2015; DOI:10.4209/aaqr.2013.10.0318 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiourea was tested as a dioxins inhibitor in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator with high capacity (34th(-1)). The suppressant, featuring a high S- and N-content, was converted into liquor and then injected (35kgh(-1)) into the furnace (850°C) through the inlets already used for Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of flue gas NOx. The first results show that thiourea reduces the dioxins in flue gas by 55.8wt.%, those in fly ash by 90.3wt.% and the total dioxins emission factor by 91.0wt.%. The concentration of PCDD/Fs was 0.08ngTEQNm(-3), below the national standard of 0.1ngTEQNm(-3). The weight average chlorination degree of dioxins decreases slightly after adding the inhibitor, indicating that it suppresses both the formation and the chlorination of dioxins. Analysis of fly ash by scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggests that the particle size becomes larger after adding the inhibitor. Further analysis using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) reveals that the sulphur content in fly ash rises, but the chlorine content declines when adding thiourea. These results suggest that poisoning the metal catalyst and blocking the chlorination are probably responsible for suppression. NOx reduction attains 42.6wt.%. These tests are paving the way for further industrial application and assist in controlling the future emissions of dioxins and NOx from MSWI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Chemosphere 02/2015; 126C:60-66. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.02.005 · 3.50 Impact Factor