Inhibition of PCDD/F by adding sulphur compounds to the feed of a hazardous waste incinerator.
ABSTRACT Sulphur compounds, including (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and pyrite, were tested as suppressants in a hazardous waste incineration facility. The test results suggested that adding sulphur compounds only slightly reduced PCDD/F stack emissions; this restricted effect was attributed to the release of fly ash in large amounts during the sulphur adding experiments, i.e., it was due to a malfunctioning of the baghouse filter. Nevertheless, for the combined flow of flue gas+fly ash a reduction of more than 50% was achieved for the total PCDD/F concentrations and the total toxic concentrations, and an even higher inhibition capability was observed for PCDD. Also, a simulation of the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions by sulphur dioxide was conducted in the domain of experimental interest. Deactivation of catalysts, which promote PCDD/F formation, was found to be the dominant inhibition mechanism in low temperature PCDD/F formation. SO(2) could also inhibit the formation of molecular Cl(2) via the Deacon reaction, but that was not the main reason for inhibition.
Article: Selecting the anterior tooth moldJournal of Prosthetic Dentistry - J PROSTHET DENT. 01/1954; 4(6):748-760.
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ABSTRACT: Selecting artificial teeth for edentulous patients is difficult when pre-extraction records are not available. Various guidelines have been suggested for determining the width of the maxillary anterior denture teeth. This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of the nasal width as a guide for the selection of proper width maxillary anterior denture teeth in four racial groups of the Brazilian population. One hundred and sixty subjects (40 Whites, 40 Mulattos, 40 Blacks, and 40 Asians) were selected. Using a sliding caliper, the nasal width and the intercanine distance were measured. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the above measurements. A prediction was made of the percentage of subjects of the White, Mulatto, Black, and Asian populations in which the selection error due to the clinical application of the method of the nasal width would be within 0 to 2 mm, within 2 to 4 mm, and greater than 4 mm. The four racial groups showed a weak correlation between the intercanine distance and the nasal width. In 39.7% of the White, 55.7% of the Mulatto, 81.9% of the Black, and 48.2% of the Asian populations, errors greater than 4 mm would be present with the use of the nasal width. The correlation found between the intercanine distance and the nasal width was not high enough to be used as a predictive factor. The relationship between natural tooth width and artificial tooth width as predicted by the nasal width showed that the nasal width method is not accurate for all the studied groups.Journal of Prosthodontics 01/2006; 15(6):353-8. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A study of many skulls was made to determine the ratios between the size of certain bony structures and the size of the anterior teeth. Several commonly used ratios were not verified, but relatively more consistency was found in others. Of particular significance was the ratio of the nasal width to the combined widths of the maxillary incisor teeth.Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 06/1967; 17(5):431-7. · 1.72 Impact Factor