Article

Review of bone substitutes.

Craniomaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction 10/2009; 2(3):151-60. DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1224777
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bone substitutes are being increasingly used in craniofacial surgery and craniomaxillofacial trauma. We will review the history of the biomaterials and describe the ideal characteristics of bone substitutes, with a specific emphasis on craniofacial reconstruction. Some of the most commonly used bone substitutes are discussed in more depth, such as calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite ceramics and cements, bioactive glass, and polymer products. Areas of active research and future directions include tissue engineering, with an increasing emphasis on bioactivity of the implant.

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