APJ polymorphisms in coronary artery disease patients with and without hypertension.
ABSTRACT Apelin is an endogenous peptide that increases cardiac inotropism through its APJ receptor. Certain findings indicate that the apelinergic system may have a pathophysiological role in cardiovascular disease and there is evidence showing the role of the apelinergic system in blood pressure regulation in vitro and in animal models. The role of the apelin-APJ system in cardiovascular physiology and its interaction with other neuroendocrine pathways has not been fully elucidated. However, the small number of reported studies indicates that apelin signaling may be involved in the regulation of blood pressure, cardiac contractile function, fluid balance, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. We evaluated the possible relationship between the G212A and A445C APJ polymorphisms and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Italian patients and in healthy controls by RFLP-PCR. We analyzed the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APJ polymorphisms in 664 patients (378 with hypertension) and 143 controls. There were no differences between allelic and genotypic frequencies in patients in respect to the controls for both polymorphisms analyzed. In the CAD population, there was an increased frequency of the G212 allele in patients with hypertension in respect to patients without hypertension. No differences were present in the two subgroups for the A445C polymorphism. Although the functional role of the G212A polymorphism has not yet been identified, it is possible to hypothesize that the presence of the A allele may cause a gain in function of the apelin/APJ system associated with a lower risk of hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Via sequencing the genes of apelin/angiotensin receptor-like 1 (apelin/APJ) pathway, we have recently identified and validated four common polymorphisms (rs3761581, rs56204867, rs7119375, and rs10501367) implicated in the development of hypertension. Extending these findings, we, in Chinese hypertensive patients, sought to investigate the association of these four polymorphisms and one additional promising candidate (rs9943582) from this pathway with the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Genotypes were obtained from 994 sporadic CAD patients and 708 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants were hypertensives and angiographically-confirmed. Data were analyzed by Haplo.Stats and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) softwares. Genotype distributions of five examined polymorphisms satisfied Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls of both genders. Single-locus analyses exhibited no significant differences in the genotype/allele frequencies of examined polymorphisms between CAD patients and controls (P>0.05), even after controlling traditional cardiovascular confounders. In haplotype analyses, low-penetrance haplotype G-A (in order of rs56204867 and rs3761581 from apelin gene) was significantly overrepresented in controls (1.73%) relative to in CAD patients (0.4%) in males (P = 0.047). Further interaction analyses suggested an overall best MDR model including rs3761581 in males (P = 0.0408) and including rs7119375 and rs9943582 in females (P<0.0001), which were further substantiated in the classical logistical regression model. Our findings demonstrated a contributive role of low-penetrance haplotype in apelin gene on CAD in males, and more importantly, interactive effects of genetic defects in apelin/APJ pathway might confer a potential risk in Chinese hypertensive patients.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51123. · 3.73 Impact Factor