Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA

Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.
Heredity (Impact Factor: 3.81). 11/2011; 108(5):507-14. DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2011.114
Source: PubMed


Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog-wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14,437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13-24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog-wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog-wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool.

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    • "l. lupus) [1]. Nevertheless, extensive research, employing a wide range of genetic markers, performed in the last two decades has provided no consensus on the place of C. l. familiaris origin [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. Some studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineage analysis in modern dog populations indicated that C. l. familiaris originated in Southeastern Asia [2,7,12–14,15]; in the others alternative places of origin, like Africa, Middle East and Europe were proposed [16] [17] [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To contribute to the complete mitogenome database of the species Canis lupus familiaris and shed more light on its origin, we have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 120 modern dogs from worldwide populations. Together with all the previously published mitogenome sequences of acceptable quality, we have reconstructed a global phylogenetic tree of 555 C. l. familiaris mitogenomes and standardized haplogroup nomenclature. The phylogenetic tree presented here and available online at could be further used by forensic and evolutionary geneticists as well cynologists, for data quality control and unambiguous haplogroup classification. Our in-depth phylogeographic analysis of all C. l. familiaris mitogenomes confirmed that domestic dogs may have originated in East Asia during the Mesolithic and Upper Paleolithic time periods and started to expand to other parts of the world during Neolithic times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 07/2015; 19:123-129. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.06.014 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Druzhkova et al. (2013) found that the unique haplotype of the Razboinichya Cave dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. It appears that wild Dog has been domesticated independently in southeastern Asia (Ding et al., 2011) and in the area stretching from Europe to Altai Mountains (Thalmann et al., 2013). Extreme differences in morphology, physiology and behavior between Dog and Gray Wolf, as well as abundant data indicating that the split between the two taxa has occurred prior to Dog's domestication, and the fact that they are partially reproductively isolated in the wild, make it impossible to consider them conspecific, so the proper scientific name for Dog is Canis familiaris. "

    • "990–35 (Bannasch et al, 2005), MS34A and MS41B (Sundqvist et al, 2001), in two separate multiplex reactions as previously described (Brown et al, 2011). We also genotyped these dogs at 29 Y-chromosome singlenucleotide polymorphisms reported by Ding et al. (2011) using a Sequenom platform with primers and conditions described by Sacks et al. (2013). "
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