Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling was carried out to reveal the co-localization of neurotransmitters. VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons as well as fibers were frequently found in human SPG. Many, homogenously stained NOS-ir cells were found, but no positive fibers. In addition, PACAP-ir was observed in some of the neurons and in fibers. Co-localization was found between VIP and NOS. In rat VIP-, NOS-, and PACAP-ir were found in many neurons and fibers. Co-localization of PACAP and NOS was observed in neurons. PACAP and GS double staining revealed that the PACAP-ir was localized in/close to the cell membrane, but not in the satellite glial cells. PAC1 and VPAC1 immunoreactivity was found in the satellite glial cells of both human and rat. Western blot revealed protein expression of PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 in rat SPG. The trigeminal-autonomic reflex may be active in migraine attacks. We hypothesized that VIP, PACAP, NOS, PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 play a role in the activation of parasympathetic cranial outflow during migraine attacks.
"Using immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay techniques, the expression of PACAP and its receptors has been found in numerous mammalian tissues including neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (Masuo et al. 1991, Ghatei et al. 1993, Csati et al. 2012, Rytel et al. 2014) as well as enteric (Kirchgessner and Liu 2001, Miampamba et al. 2002) and intramural ganglia of the pancreas (Hannibal and Fahrenkrug 2000) and heart (Girard et al. 2007). At the central level, PACAP may exert a variety of functions like modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary hormones release (Kanasaki et al. 2015), food consumption and water drinking (Puig de Parada et al. 1995, Mounien et al. 2009), neuronal differentiation, neuroprotection (Manecka et al. 2013) and many more, whereas its role at the periphery is relatively less understood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide existing in two variant forms (of either 27 or 38 residues), widely present in numerous organs and evoking multiple effects both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution pattern of PACAP-27 expression in the ovine pancreas. Using double immunohistochemical stainings co-localizations of PACAP-27 with galanin, SP or CRF were studied in intrapancreatic neurons. In intrapancreatic ganglia, immunoreactivty to PACAP-27 was found in 87.6 ± 5.4% of PGP 9.5-positive intrapancreatic neurons but not in intraganglionic nerve fibres. Numerous PACAP-27-immunoreactive nerve terminals were also observed between pancreatic acini and around small arterioles. No immunoreactivity to PACAP-27 was found in the endocrine pancreas. In 42.9 ± 6.2% of PACAP-27-immunoreactive intrapancreatic neurons the expression of galanin was also found. Statistically lower subpopulation (12.4 ± 4.0%) of intrapancreatic neurons exhibited simultaneously the immunoreactivity to PACAP-27 and SP. The expression of CRF was detected in the relatively smallest group (3.2 ± 1.4%) of PACAP-27-positive intrapancreatic neurons. The present results suggest that in the ovine pancreas PACAP-27 may play an important role as mediator of pancreatic functions. In PACAP-related pancreatic activities, a modulatory role of galanin, SP and to a lower extend of CRF is also likely.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by mild to severe headache that is often accompanied by aura and other neurological symptoms. Among proposed mechanisms, dilation of the dural vasculature especially the middle meningeal artery (MMA) has been implicated as one component underlying this disorder. Several regulatory peptides from trigeminal sensory and sphenopalatine postganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervating these vessels have been implicated in the process including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Although PACAP has been well described as a potent dilator in many vascular beds, the effects of PACAP on the dural vasculature are unclear. In the current study, we examined the ability of PACAP to dilate MMAs that were isolated from rats and pressurized ex vivo. PACAP38 potently dilated pressurized MMAs with an EC(50) of 1 pM. The PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38), abolished MMA dilation caused by picomolar concentrations of PACAP. In contrast, cerebellar arteries isolated from the brain surface were ~1,000-fold less sensitive to PACAP than MMAs. Although cerebellar arteries expressed transcripts for all three PACAP receptor subtypes (PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors) by RT-PCR analyses, MMA demonstrated only PAC1 and VPAC2 receptor expression. Further, multiple variants of the PAC1 receptor were identified in the MMA. The expression of PAC1 receptors and the high potency of PACAP to induce MMA vasodilation are consistent with their potential roles in the etiology of migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent unilateral headaches accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Current theories suggest that the initiation of a migraine attack involves a primary event in the central nervous system (CNS), probably involving a combination of genetic changes in ion channels and environmental changes, which renders the individual more sensitive to environmental factors; this may, in turn, result in a wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD) when the attack is initiated. Genetically, migraine is a complex familial disorder in which the severity and the susceptibility of individuals are most likely governed by several genes that vary between families. Early PET studies have suggested the involvement of a migraine active region in the brainstem. Migraine headache is associated with trigeminal nerve activation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the trigeminovascular system. Administration of triptans (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists) causes the headache to subside and the levels of CGRP to normalize. Moreover, administration of CGRP receptor antagonists aborts the headache. Recent immunohistochemical and pharmacological results suggest that the trigeminal system has receptors for CGRP; further, 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors, which inhibit the action of CGRP in pain transmission when activated, have been demonstrated. This offers an explanation for the treatment response. The present review provides an updated analysis of the basic mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and the various pharmacological approaches (including 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists, CGRP receptor antagonists and glutamate receptor antagonists) that have shown efficacy for the acute treatment of this disorder.
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