G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, and many human diseases are due to defects in GPCR signaling. To identify the dynamic response of a signaling network downstream from a prototypical G(s)-coupled GPCR, the vasopressin V2 receptor, we have carried out multireplicate, quantitative phosphoproteomics with iTRAQ labeling at four time points following vasopressin exposure at a physiological concentration in cells isolated from rat kidney. A total of 12,167 phosphopeptides were identified from 2,783 proteins, with 273 changing significantly in abundance with vasopressin. Two-dimensional clustering of phosphopeptide time courses and Gene Ontology terms revealed that ligand binding to the V2 receptor affects more than simply the canonical cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A and arrestin pathways under physiological conditions. The regulated proteins included key components of actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell-cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and apoptosis pathways. These data suggest that vasopressin can regulate an array of cellular functions well beyond its classical role in regulating water and solute transport. These results greatly expand the current view of GPCR signaling in a physiological context and shed new light on potential roles for this signaling network in disorders such as polycystic kidney disease. Finally, we provide an online resource of physiologically regulated phosphorylation sites with dynamic quantitative data (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/TiPD/index.html).
"In this dataset brief, we perform phosphoproteomic analyses on rat and bovine glomerular tissue and combined the results with our recently published data set in mouse glomeruli to generate a dataset with conserved phosphorylation sites across species (Supporting Information Table 1, ). Little is known about the rat kidney glomerulus phosphoproteome in contrast to distal and proximal tubular proteomes  . In bovine tissue, proteomics analyses have been established very recently , but no phosphoproteomic studies have been performed to our knowledge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glomerular biology is dependent on tightly controlled signal transduction networks that control phosphorylation of signaling proteins such as cytoskeletal regulators or slit diaphragm proteins of kidney podocytes. Cross-species comparison of phosphorylation events is a powerful mean to functionally prioritize and identify physiologically meaningful phosphorylation sites. Here, we present the result of phosphoproteomic analyses of cow and rat glomeruli to allow cross-species comparisons. We discovered several phosphorylation sites with potentially high biological relevance, e.g. tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal regulator synaptopodin and the slit diaphragm protein neph-1 (Kirrel). Moreover, cross-species comparisons revealed conserved phosphorylation of the slit diaphragm protein nephrin on an acidic cluster at the intracellular terminus and conserved podocin phosphorylation on the very carboxyl terminus of the protein. We studied a highly conserved podocin phosphorylation site in greater detail and show that phosphorylation regulates affinity of the interaction with nephrin and CD2AP. Taken together, these results suggest that species comparisons of phosphoproteomic data may reveal regulatory principles in glomerular biology.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
"The quantitative phosphoproteomic case study example. Previously published quantitative phosphoproteomic data from rat kidney inner medulla  of the 15 min time point from one of the three biological replicates was analyzed. The manually compiled search results are represented as a Venn diagram on the left and the PhosFox processed results as Venn diagrams on the right. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
It is possible to identify thousands of phosphopeptides and –proteins in a single experiment with mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. However, a current bottleneck is the downstream data analysis which is often laborious and requires a number of manual steps.
Toward automating the analysis steps, we have developed and implemented a software, PhosFox, which enables peptide-level processing of phosphoproteomic data generated by multiple protein identification search algorithms, including Mascot, Sequest, and Paragon, as well as cross-comparison of their identification results. The software supports both qualitative and quantitative phosphoproteomics studies, as well as multiple between-group comparisons. Importantly, PhosFox detects uniquely phosphorylated peptides and proteins in one sample compared to another. It also distinguishes differences in phosphorylation sites between phosphorylated proteins in different samples. Using two case study examples, a qualitative phosphoproteome dataset from human keratinocytes and a quantitative phosphoproteome dataset from rat kidney inner medulla, we demonstrate here how PhosFox facilitates an efficient and in-depth phosphoproteome data analysis. PhosFox was implemented in the Perl programming language and it can be run on most common operating systems. Due to its flexible interface and open source distribution, the users can easily incorporate the program into their MS data analysis workflows and extend the program with new features. PhosFox source code, implementation and user instructions are freely available from https://bitbucket.org/phintsan/phosfox.
PhosFox facilitates efficient and more in-depth comparisons between phosphoproteins in case–control settings. The open source implementation is easily extendable to accommodate additional features for widespread application use cases.
"We also report that PhosSA was able to do better in terms of accuracy as well as sensitivity when compared to other tools such as Ascore, PhosphoScore and PhosphoRS. Unlike Ascore and PhosphoScore, PhosSA is able to deal with both HCD data sets as well as iTRAQ- or SILAC-labelled CID data sets as demonstrated in . One of the pitfalls of most proteomics tools is the inability to deal with different file formats. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation site assignment of high throughput tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data is one of the most common and critical aspects of phosphoproteomics. Correctly assigning phosphorylated residues helps us understand their biological significance. The design of common search algorithms (such as Sequest, Mascot etc.) do not incorporate site assignment; therefore additional algorithms are essential to assign phosphorylation sites for mass spectrometry data. The main contribution of this study is the design and implementation of a linear time and space dynamic programming strategy for phosphorylation site assignment referred to as PhosSA. The proposed algorithm uses summation of peak intensities associated with theoretical spectra as an objective function. Quality control of the assigned sites is achieved using a post-processing redundancy criteria that indicates the signal-to-noise ratio properties of the fragmented spectra. The quality assessment of the algorithm was determined using experimentally generated data sets using synthetic peptides for which phosphorylation sites were known. We report that PhosSA was able to achieve a high degree of accuracy and sensitivity with all the experimentally generated mass spectrometry data sets. The implemented algorithm is shown to be extremely fast and scalable with increasing number of spectra (we report up to 0.5 million spectra/hour on a moderate workstation). The algorithm is designed to accept results from both Sequest and Mascot search engines. An executable is freely available at http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/PhosSA/ for academic research purposes.
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