Development and validation of a drag swab method using tampons and different diluents for the detection of members of Salmonella in broiler houses.
ABSTRACT Members of the genus Salmonella represent a significant public health concern and also a colonizer of commercial poultry. Therefore, the early detection and management of colonized broiler breeders and their progeny is essential. There have been numerous methods for farm-based detection, with gauze-based drag swabs being the most commonly used. In the present study, the wet (boiled water, buffered peptone water and double-strength skin milk) tampon was compared with the gauze to determine the recovery rate (10(2) colony-forming units/swab) of five common poultry serovars of Salmonella and after cold (4°C/48 h) storage. The recovery was found to be equivalent when tested using the ISO6572:2002 method, for all diluents (Cohen's κ =1.0; sensitivity = 1.0; specificity = 1.0). The subsequent field trial (n = 15 farms) compared the tampon drag swab (TDS) with a statistically appropriate (90% confidence, detect 10% prevalence) number of faecal swabs (n = 22), which also showed high agreement between the TDS and faecal sampling (κ = 0.86; McNemar's χ(2) = 1.0; sensitivity = 0.9; specificity = 1.0). However, direct faecal sampling showed a wider diversity of serovars of Salmonella than the corresponding TDS. The TDS is a very sensitive, readily available and cost-effective screening method for salmonellas in broiler breeder houses. This TDS technique may be used for routinely screening of broiler houses, and faecal sampling would only be used to confirm colonization or contamination, and to measure flock serovar variance.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the results of semisolid media and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium for the detection of Salmonella in faecal samples from broiler and layer flocks. Three different selective enrichment media were used: (a) RV medium; (b) diagnostic semisolid Salmonella medium (DIASALM) and (c) modified semisolid RV (MSRV) medium. The performance of DIASALM and MSRV was significantly better compared with RV. The results of this study indicate that approximately 95% of the samples containing Salmonella would be detected by a combination of a semisolid medium (MSRV or DIASALM) and RV. The International Standard method ISO 6579, including RV and selenite cystine broth as selective enrichment media, is most frequently used for the isolation of Salmonella from poultry faeces. This study reveals that there are more suitable combinations of selective enrichment media.Letters in Applied Microbiology 03/2001; 32(2):89-92. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted to compare litter sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella. In experiment 1, chicks were challenged orally with a suspension of naladixic acid-resistant Salmonella and wing banded, and additional nonchallenged chicks were placed into each of 2 challenge pens. Nonchallenged chicks were placed into each nonchallenge pen located adjacent to the challenge pens. At 7, 8, 10, and 11 wk of age the litter was sampled using 4 methods: fecal droppings, litter grab, drag swab, and sock. For the challenge pens, Salmonella-positive samples were detected in 3 of 16 fecal samples, 6 of 16 litter grab samples, 7 of 16 drag swabs samples, and 7 of 16 sock samples. Samples from the nonchallenge pens were Salmonella positive in 2 of 16 litter grab samples, 9 of 16 drag swab samples, and 9 of 16 sock samples. In experiment 2, chicks were challenged with Salmonella, and the litter in the challenge and adjacent nonchallenge pens were sampled at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age with broilers remaining in all pens. For the challenge pens, Salmonella was detected in 10 of 36 fecal samples, 20 of 36 litter grab samples, 14 of 36 drag swab samples, and 26 of 36 sock samples. Samples from the adjacent nonchallenge pens were positive for Salmonella in 6 of 36 fecal droppings samples, 4 of 36 litter grab samples, 7 of 36 drag swab samples, and 19 of 36 sock samples. Sock samples had the highest rates of Salmonella detection. In experiment 3, the litter from a Salmonella-challenged flock was sampled at 7, 8, and 9 wk by socks and drag swabs. In addition, comparisons with drag swabs that were stepped on during sampling were made. Both socks (24 of 36, 67%) and drag swabs that were stepped on (25 of 36, 69%) showed significantly more Salmonella-positive samples than the traditional drag swab method (16 of 36, 44%). Drag swabs that were stepped on had comparable Salmonella detection level to that for socks. Litter sampling methods that incorporate stepping on the sample material while in contact with the litter appear to detect Salmonella in greater incidence than traditional sampling methods of dragging swabs over the litter surface.Poultry Science 02/2007; 86(1):21-5. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three flocks raised for broiler or roaster performance tests were studied to determine the incidence and sources of salmonellae during the growing period, transport and processing and to relate these to contamination of processed carcasses. Day old chicks in two of the tests, (tests IV and V), were treated with a culture of intestinal anaerobes derived from mature chickens. The incidence of salmonellae during the growing period was too low to permit any conclusions about the efficacy of this culture in preventing Salmonella infection, but it had no adverse effect on flock performance. Carcasses from all three flocks were contaminated with salmonellae. Although the test IV flock was raised free of salmonellae, 46% of the carcasses tested from this flock were contaminated. The apparent source was the transport crates, 99% of which yielded salmonellae before the flock was loaded. In test V, 92% of the carcasses tested yielded salmonellae. The apparent sources were: flock infection (apparently originating from the parent flock), contaminated crates, spread during transport, and plant contamination. The flock of test VI was infected with Salmonella albany, and 54% of the carcasses tested were contaminated with this serovar. Carcasses of chicks infected early in life were more likely to be contaminated than those of chickens which contacted salmonellae later in the growing period.Canadian journal of comparative medicine. Revue canadienne de medecine comparee 08/1982; 46(3):272-8.