Lipid-Mediated Unfolding of 3 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 2 Is Essential for Steroidogenic Activity

Mercer University School of Medicine and Memorial University Medical Center, Savannah, Georgia 31404, United States.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.38). 11/2011; 50(51):11015-24. DOI: 10.1021/bi2016102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT For inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) proteins that do not undergo N-terminal cleavage, the activity may occur in the absence of a receptor present in the mitochondrial membrane. One such protein is human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2), the IMM resident protein responsible for catalyzing two key steps in steroid metabolism: the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. Conversion requires that 3βHSD2 serve as both a dehydrogenase and an isomerase. The dual functionality of 3βHSD2 results from a conformational change, but the trigger for this change remains unknown. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that 3βHSD2 interacted strongly with a mixture of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). 3βHSD2 became less stable when incubated with the individual lipids, as indicated by the decrease in thermal denaturation (T(m)) from 42 to 37 °C. DPPG, alone or in combination with DPPC, led to a decrease in α-helical content without an effect on the β-sheet conformation. With the exception of the 20 N-terminal amino acids, mixed vesicles protected 3βHSD2 from trypsin digestion. However, protein incubated with DPPC was only partially protected. The lipid-mediated unfolding completely supports the model in which a cavity forms between the α-helix and β-sheet. As 3βHSD2 lacks a receptor, opening the conformation may activate the protein.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a master regulator for steroidogenesis. In this study, we identified novel SF-1 target genes using a genome-wide promoter tiling array and a DNA microarray. SF-1 was found to regulate human glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA) family genes (hGSTA1-hGSTA4), a superfamily of detoxification enzymes clustered on chromosome 6p12. All hGSTA genes were up-regulated by transduction of SF-1 into human mesenchymal stem cells, while knockdown of endogenous SF-1 in H295R cells down-regulated all hGSTA genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, however, revealed that SF-1 bound directly to the promoters of hGSTA3 and weakly of hGSTA4. Chromosome conformation capture assays revealed that the coordinated expression of the genes was based on changes in higher-order chromatin structure triggered by SF-1, which enables the formation of long-range interactions, at least between hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene promoters. In steroidogenesis, dehydrogenation of the 3-hydroxy group and subsequent Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization are thought to be enzymatic properties of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). Here, we demonstrated that, in steroidogenic cells, the hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene products catalyze Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization in a coordinated fashion with 3β-HSD II to produce progesterone or Δ(4)-androstenedione from their Δ(5)-precursors. Thus, hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene products are new members of steroidogenesis working as Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerases.-Matsumura, T., Imamichi, Y., Mizutani, T., Ju, Y., Yazawa, T., Kawabe, S., Kanno, M., Ayabe, T., Katsumata, N., Fukami, M., Inatani, M., Akagi, Y., Umezawa, A., Ogata, T., Miyamoto, K. Human glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA) family genes are regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and are involved in steroidogenesis.
    The FASEB Journal 05/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.1096/fj.12-222745 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, adipose tissues have been increasingly known for their endocrine properties, that is, their ability to secrete a number of adipocytokines that may exert local and/or systemic effects. In addition to these hormonal peptides, adipose tissues have long been recognized as significant sites for steroid hormone transformation and action. We hereby provide an updated survey of the many steroid-converting enzymes that may be detected in human adipose tissues, their activities and potential roles. In addition to the now well-established role of aromatase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1, many enzymes have been reported in adipocyte cell lines, isolated mature cells and/or preadipocytes. These include 11β-HSD type 2, 17β-HSDs, 3β-HSD, 5α-reductases, sulfatases and glucuronosyltransferases. Some of these enzymes are postulated to bear relevance for adipose tissue physiology and perhaps for the pathophysiology of obesity. This elaborate set of steroid-converting enzymes in the cell types of adipose tissue deserves further scientific attention. Our work on 20α-HSD (AKR1C1), 3α-HSD type 3 (AKR1C2) and 17β-HSD type 5 (AKR1C3) allowed us to clarify the relevance of these enzymes for some aspects of adipose tissue function. For example, AKR1C2 expression down-regulation in preadipocytes seems to potentiate the inhibitory action of dihydrotestosterone on adipogenesis in this model. Many additional studies are warranted to assess the impact of intra-adipose steroid hormone conversions on adipose tissue functions and chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 11/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.11.011 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The steroidogenic enzyme 3-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2) mediates the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione through both its dehydrogenase and isomerase activities, making it necessary for the protein to undergo a reversible conformational change. We hypothesized that chaperones assist 3βHSD2 in switching between the conformations to initiate, enhance, and maintain activity. In the presence of the chaperone lauryl maltoside (LM), 3βHSD2 immediately converted pregnenolone to progesterone, with a 6.4-fold increase in synthesis. Using far-UV circular dichroism (CD), we found that addition of LM increased 3βHSD2’s α-helical content, which over time reverted to control levels, suggesting the formation of a stable but reversible conformation possibly due to hydrophobic interactions of the protein with LM micelles. We also found that LM increased fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) about 11-fold between 3βHSD2 and fluorescing ANS molecules. This observation supports the idea that detergent(s) act as chaperones to assist 3βHSD2 in forming stable complexes, which in turn promotes proper folding. Mass spectrometric fingerprinting illustrated that LM incubation resulted in an ordered fragmentation of molecular mass from 39 to 13 kDa, as compared to limited or no proteolysis in the absence of LM. In addition, space-filling modeling demonstrated that 3βHSD2 association with detergents likely exposed the hydrophobic region, leading to its proteolysis. We conclude that detergents help 3βHSD2 to refold in order to rejuvenate, contributing to the ability of cells to rapidly produce steroids when needed.
    ACS Chemical Biology 05/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.1021/cb400052s · 5.44 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014