Temporally resolved electrocardiogram-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging of the human kidney: correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and renal blood flow at different time points of the cardiac cycle.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the influence of pulsatile blood flow on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and the fraction of pseudodiffusion (F(P)) in the human kidney.
The kidneys of 6 healthy volunteers were examined by a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and phase-contrast flow measurements were performed. Flow imaging of renal arteries was carried out to quantify the dependence of renal blood flow on the cardiac cycle. ECG-triggered DWI was acquired in the coronal plane with 16 b values in the range of 0 s/mm(2) and 750 s/mm(2) at the time of minimum (MIN) (20 milliseconds after R wave) and maximum renal blood flow (MAX) (197 ± 24 milliseconds after R wave). The diffusion coefficients were calculated using the monoexponential approach as well as the biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion model and correlated to phase-contrast flow measurements.
Flow imaging showed pulsatile renal blood flow depending on the cardiac cycle. The mean flow velocity at MIN was 45 cm/s as compared with 61 cm/s at MAX. F(p) at MIN (0.29) was significantly lower than at MAX (0.40) (P = 0.001). Similarly, ADC(mono), derived from the monoexponential model, also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between MIN (ADC(mono) = 2.14 ± 0.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and MAX (ADC(mono) = 2.37 ± 0.04 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). The correlation between renal blood flow and F(p) (r = 0.85) as well as ADC(mono) (r = 0.67) was statistically significant.
Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI enables for the determination of the diffusion coefficients at different time points of the cardiac cycle. ADC(mono) and FP vary significantly among acquisitions at minimum (diastole) and maximum (systole) renal blood flow. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI might therefore serve as a novel technique for the assessment of pulsatility in the human kidney.
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ABSTRACT: In functional renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), advanced techniques are applied to obtain information on a functional and molecular level from the kidney tissue beyond pure morphology. Techniques such as diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, arterial spin labelling, and blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging provide potential biomarkers of organ function. Moreover, dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques after the intra-venous injection of gadolinium-chelates may be used to assess glomerular filtration and urinary excretion. This review summarizes recent developments of contrast- and non-contrast-enhanced MRI techniques for assessment of renal function in a clinical setting. The physiological background and the sequence techniques are described in detail. Potential clinical applications of the different techniques are discussed regarding their potential usefulness in the assessment of parenchymal diseases, urinary tract anomalies, transplant kidney function, and renal masses.Current Radiology Reports. 1(2).
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ABSTRACT: Measurement of microvascular perfusion with Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MRI is gaining interest. Yet, the physiological influences on the IVIM perfusion parameters ("pseudo-diffusion" coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and flow related parameter fD*) remain insufficiently characterized. In this article, we hypothesize that D* and fD*, which depend on blood speed, should vary during the cardiac cycle. We extended the IVIM model to include time dependence of D* = D*(t), and demonstrate in the healthy human brain that both parameters D* and fD* are significantly larger during systole than diastole, while the diffusion coefficient D and f do not vary significantly. The results non-invasively demonstrate the pulsatility of the brain's microvasculature.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72856. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine whether diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in living renal allograft donation allows monitoring of potential changes in the nontransplanted remaining kidney of the donor because of unilateral nephrectomy and changes in the transplanted kidney before and after transplantation in donor and recipient, respectively, and whether DW MR parameters are correlated in the same kidney before and after transplantation. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients prospectively underwent DW MR imaging (multiple b values) in donors before donation and in donors and recipients at day 8 and months 3 and 12 after donation. Total apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCT) values were determined; contribution of microcirculation was quantified in perfusion fraction (FP). Longitudinal changes of diffusion parameters were compared (repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pairwise comparisons). Correlations were tested (linear regression). Results ADCT values in nontransplanted kidney of donors increased from a preexplantation value of (188 ± 9 [standard deviation]) to (202 ± 11) × 10(-5) mm(2)/sec in medulla and from (199 ± 11) to (210 ± 13) × 10(-5) mm(2)/sec in cortex 1 week after donation (P < .004). Medullary, but not cortical, ADCT values stayed increased up to 1 year. ADCT values in allografts in recipients were stable. Compared with values obtained before transplantation in donors, the corticomedullary difference was reduced in allografts (P < .03). Cortical ADCT values correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in recipients (R = 0.56, P < .001) but not donors. Cortical ADCT values in the same kidney before transplantation in donors correlated with those in recipients on day 8 after transplantation (R = 0.77, P = .006). FP did not show significant changes. Conclusion DW MR imaging depicts early adaptations in the remaining nontransplanted kidney of donors after nephrectomy. All diffusion parameters remained constant in allograft recipients after transplantation. This method has potential monitoring utility, although assessment of clinical relevance is needed. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article.Radiology 11/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor