Firearm related injuries amongst children: Estimates from the nationwide emergency department sample
ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to provide estimates of firearm related injuries in children seeking care in hospital based emergency departments.
The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the year 2008 was used for the current study. All ED visits occurring amongst children aged less than or equal to 18 years and that had an External Cause of Injury (E-Code) for any of the firearm related injuries were selected for analysis.
A total of 14,831 ED visits (in children) in the United States had a firearm injury. The average age of the ED visits was 15.9 years. Males constituted a predominant proportion of all ED visits (89.2%). A total of 494 patients died in the emergency departments (3.4% of all ED visits) whilst 323 died following in-patient admission into the same hospital (6% of all inpatient admissions). The most frequently documented firearms were assaults by firearms and explosives (55% of all ED visits), accidents caused by firearms and air gun missiles (33.6%), and injuries by firearms that were undetermined (7.4%). The average charge for each ED visit was $3642 (25th percentile is $1146, median is $2003, and 75th percentile is $4404). The mean charge for those visits that resulted in in-patient admission into the same hospital was $70,164 (25th percentile is $16,704, median is $36,111, and 75th percentile is $74,165) and the total charges for the entire United States was about $371.33 million.
The current study used the largest all-payer hospital based emergency department dataset to provide national estimates of firearm related injuries amongst children in the United States during the year 2008 and highlights the public health impact of such injuries.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The estimates of patients who present with transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in the emergency departments (EDs) of United States and their disposition and factors that determine hospital admission are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We used a nationally representative database to determine the rate and predictors of admission in TIA patients presenting to EDs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Sample (2006-2008) for all patients presenting with a primary diagnosis of TIA in the United States. Samples were weighted to provide national estimates of TIA hospitalizations and identify factors that increase the odds of hospital admission including age, sex, type of insurance, median household income, and hospital type (urban teaching, urban nonteaching, and nonurban). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hospital admission. RESULTS: There were 812908 ED visits for primary diagnosis of TIA; mean age (±SD), 70.3 ± 14.9 years; and 57.9% were women from 2006 to 2008. Of these ED visits, 516837 (63.5%) were admitted to the hospital, whereas 296071 (36.5%) were discharged from the ED to home. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting age, sex, and medical comorbidities, independent factors associated with hospital admissions were median household income $64000 or higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; P = .003), Medicare insurance type (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26; P < .0001), and metropolitan teaching hospital ED (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.90-2.48; P < .0001). CONCLUSION: From 2006 to 2008, approximately 64% of all patients presenting with TIAs to the EDs within United States were admitted to the hospital. Factors unrelated to patients' condition such as median household income, insurance status, and ED affiliated hospital type play an important role in the decision to admit TIA patients to the hospitals.The American journal of emergency medicine 02/2013; 31(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2012.10.003 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Firearm injuries to children and adolescents remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of and epidemiologic risk factors associated with firearm injuries to children and adolescents evaluated in a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments and ambulatory care centres. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2001 to 2010. Firearm injury-related visits in patients 0-19 years old were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification firearm injury codes. The primary outcome was the prevalence of firearm-related injuries. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyse demographic risk factors associated with these injuries. From 2001 to 2010, there were a total of 322 730 927 (95% CI 287 462 091 to 357 999 763) paediatric US outpatient visits; 198 969 visits (0.06%, 95% CI 120 727 to 277 211) were for firearm injuries. Fatal firearm injuries accounted for 2% of these visits; 36% were intentionally inflicted. There were increased odds of firearm injuries to men (OR 10.2, 95% CI 5.1 to 20.5), black children and adolescents (0-19 years) (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.7) and adolescents 12-19 years old (all races) (OR 16.6, 95% CI 6.3 to 44.3) on multivariable analysis. Firearm injuries continue to be a substantial problem for US children and adolescents, with non-fatal rates 24% higher than previously reported. Increased odds for firearm-related visits were found in men, black children and those 12-19 years old.Archives of Disease in Childhood 12/2013; 99(4). DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2013-304642 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71 784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.PEDIATRICS 02/2014; 133(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1615 · 5.30 Impact Factor