Toxoplasma gondii triggers release of human and mouse neutrophil extracellular traps.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Infection and immunity (Impact Factor: 4.21). 11/2011; 80(2):768-77. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.05730-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neutrophils have recently been shown to release DNA-based extracellular traps that contribute to microbicidal killing and have also been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens has received much less attention. Here, we show that the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii elicits the production of NETs from human and mouse neutrophils. Tachyzoites of each of the three major parasite strain types were efficiently entrapped within NETs, resulting in decreased parasite viability. We also show that Toxoplasma activates a MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in neutrophils and that the inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased NET formation. To determine if Toxoplasma induced NET formation in vivo, we employed a mouse intranasal infection model. We found that the administration of tachyzoites by this route induced a rapid tissue recruitment of neutrophils with evidence of extracellular DNA release. Taken together, these data indicate a role for NETs in the host innate response to protozoan infection. We propose that NET formation limits infection by direct microbicidal effects on Toxoplasma as well as by interfering with the ability of the parasite to invade target host cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1–3 h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4‘,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p < 0.05). Bacteria + 25 nM PMA and bacteria + PMA + Cyt increased NETs (p < 0.05). Szoo induced fewer NETs than Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology 08/2014; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system’s first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system.
    Microbes and Infection 06/2014; 16(6):502-511. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a novel effector mechanism polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which represent protein-labeled DNA matrices capable of extracellular trapping and killing of invasive pathogens. Here, we demonstrate for the first time NET formation performed by caprine PMN exposed to different stages (sporozoites and oocysts) of the goat apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria arloingi. Scanning electron microscopy as well as fluorescence microscopy of sporozoites- and oocysts-PMN co-cultures revealed a fine network of DNA fibrils partially covering the parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed the co-localization of histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in extracellular traps released from caprine PMN. In addition, the enzymatic activity of NE was found significantly enhanced in sporozoite-exposed caprine PMN. The treatment of caprine NET structures with deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodondium (DPI) significantly reduced NETosis confirming the classical characteristics of NETs. Caprine NETs efficiently trapped vital sporozoites of E. arloingi since 72 % of these stages were immobilized-but not killed-in NET structures. As a consequence, early infection rates were significantly reduced when PMN-pre-exposed sporozoites were allowed to infect adequate host cells. These findings suggest that NETs may play an important role in the early innate host response to E. arloingi infection in goats.
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Jun 4, 2014