Toxoplasma gondii triggers release of human and mouse neutrophil extracellular traps.
ABSTRACT Neutrophils have recently been shown to release DNA-based extracellular traps that contribute to microbicidal killing and have also been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens has received much less attention. Here, we show that the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii elicits the production of NETs from human and mouse neutrophils. Tachyzoites of each of the three major parasite strain types were efficiently entrapped within NETs, resulting in decreased parasite viability. We also show that Toxoplasma activates a MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in neutrophils and that the inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased NET formation. To determine if Toxoplasma induced NET formation in vivo, we employed a mouse intranasal infection model. We found that the administration of tachyzoites by this route induced a rapid tissue recruitment of neutrophils with evidence of extracellular DNA release. Taken together, these data indicate a role for NETs in the host innate response to protozoan infection. We propose that NET formation limits infection by direct microbicidal effects on Toxoplasma as well as by interfering with the ability of the parasite to invade target host cells.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are the first major population of leukocyte to infiltrate infected or injured tissues and are crucial for initiating host innate defense and adaptive immunity. Although the contribution of neutrophils to innate immune defense is mediated predominantly by phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms, neutrophils also participate in the induction of adaptive immune responses. At sites of infection and/or injury, neutrophils release numerous mediators upon degranulation or death, among these are alarmins which have a characteristic dual capacity to mobilize and activate antigen-presenting cells. We describe here how alarmins released by neutrophil degranulation and/or death can link neutrophils to dendritic cells by promoting their recruitment and activation, resulting in the augmentation of innate and adaptive immune responses.Trends in Immunology 09/2009; 30(11):531-7. · 10.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As key players in the host innate immune response, neutrophils are recruited to sites of infection and constitute the first line of defense. They employ three strategies to eliminate invading microbes: microbial uptake, the secretion of antimicrobials, and the recently described release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). Composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial proteins, NETs bind and kill a variety of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In addition to using a repertoire of known antimicrobials, NETs incorporate histones into the antimicrobial arsenal. Furthermore, NETs may contribute to microbial containment by forming a physical barrier and a scaffold, to enhance antimicrobial synergy while minimizing damage to host tissues. Their role in innate immunity is only now being uncovered.Trends in Immunology 09/2009; 30(11):513-21. · 10.40 Impact Factor
Article: CXCR2 deficiency confers impaired neutrophil recruitment and increased susceptibility during Toxoplasma gondii infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutrophil migration to the site of infection is a critical early step in host immunity to microbial pathogens, in which chemokines and their receptors play an important role. In this work, mice deficient in expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 were infected with Toxoplasma gondii and the outcome was monitored. Gene-deleted animals displayed completely defective neutrophil recruitment, which was apparent at 4 h and sustained for at least 36 h. Kit(W)/Kit(W-v) animals also displayed defective polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration, suggesting mast cells as one source of chemokines driving the response. Tachyzoite infection and replication were accelerated in CXCR2(-/-) animals, resulting in establishment of higher cyst numbers in the brain relative to wild-type controls. Furthermore, serum and spleen cell IFN-gamma levels in infected, gene-deleted mice were reduced 60-75% relative to infected normal animals, and spleen cell TNF-alpha was likewise reduced by approximately 50%. These results highlight an important role for CXCR2 in neutrophil migration, which may be important for early control of infection and induction of immunity during Toxoplasma infection.The Journal of Immunology 01/2002; 167(11):6503-9. · 5.79 Impact Factor