Comorbidities Related to BMI Category in Children and Adolescents: German/Austrian/Swiss Obesity Register APV Compared to the German KiGGS Study
ABSTRACT To assess cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to investigate the relationship to BMI category.
Data of 63,025 overweight or obese patients (APV population) were compared to normal-weight subjects from a representative study on health status of 14,298 children and adolescents in Germany (KiGGS survey). The weight status was assessed by BMI, and BMI-SDS values were cal-culated using national reference data.
In normal-weight KiGGS subjects, mean BMI was 17.3 ± 2.5 (BMI-SDS -0.1 ± 0.8). In the overweight or obese APV population, mean BMI was 30.2 ± 5.6 (BMI-SDS 2.5 ± 0.6). In normal-weight subjects blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were elevated in 6.1, 8.6, 7.0 and 3.0%, respectively, and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in 3.0%, whereas in overweight/obese subjects the percentages of abnormal values were 35.3, 13.8, 14.5, 13.6, and 10.1%, respectively.
Cardiovascular risk is increased in obese children and adolescents. There is a strong need to monitor blood pressure and serum lipids in this group of patients. Our results emphasize the importance of prevention of obesity in order to reduce cardiovascular risk.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity), which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and sex-specific features and regional differences are not taken into account. Therefore, expert consensus recommendations for promoting physical activity of children and adolescents in Germany were developed with special respect to national data, but also with respect to aspects of specific target groups, e.g., children with a lower socio-economic status (SES) or with migration background. They propose 90 min/day of physical activity, or at least 12,000 steps daily. Additionally, lifestyle factors, especially restriction of media consumption, were integrated. The recommendations provide orientation for parents and caregivers, for institutions such as schools and kindergartens as well as for communities and stakeholders. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.Obesity Facts 05/2014; 7(3):178-190. DOI:10.1159/000362485 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe burden of disease from childhood obesity is considerable worldwide, as it is associated with several co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), orthopedic and psychosocial problems. We aimed at determining the prevalence of these complications in a population of children and adolescents with body weight excess.MethodsThis is a cohort study including 774 new patients (1.7 - 17.9 yrs, mean 11.1 ± 3.0) attending a pediatric obesity care center. We assessed personal and family medical histories, physical examination, systemic blood pressure, biochemical screening tests.ResultsWe found that the great majority of the children suffered from at least one medical complication. Orthopedic pathologies were the most frequent (54%), followed by metabolic (42%) and cardiovascular disturbances (31%). However, non-medical conditions related to well-being, such as bullying, psychological complaints, shortness of breath or abnormal sleeping patterns, were present in the vast majority of the children (79.4%). Family history of dyslipidemia tends to correlate with the child’s lipids disturbance (p = .053), and ischemic events or T2DM were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors present in the child (p = .046; p = .038, respectively).ConclusionsThe vast majority of obese children suffer from medical and non-medical co-morbidities which must be actively screened. A positive family history for cardiovascular diseases or T2DM should be warning signs to perform further complementary tests. Furthermore, well-being related-complaints should not be underestimated as they were extremely frequent.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-232) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.BMC Pediatrics 09/2014; 14(1):232. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-14-232 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: In order to assess the relationship between hypertension or dyslipidemia and obesity, the body mass index (BMI) is usually used. Unlike waist circumference (WC), BMI does not reflect body fat distribution. The aim of this study is to investigate whether BMI or WC is a better predictor of hypertension or dyslipidemia in overweight/obese children and adolescents. Methods: As of November 2012, the APV database contained data on 81,819 patients from 189 specialized pediatric obesity institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. Results: The average age of the youths (n = 5.978) was 13.9 ± 1.8 years. Mean BMI-SDS was 2.0 ± 0.5, and mean WC-SDS was 2.2 ± 0.5. Both BMI-SDS and WC-SDS are significant predictors of hypertension and dyslipidemia: BMI-SDS is a better predictor (OR = 2.60) for hypertension than WC-SDS (OR = 1.85), while WC-SDS (OR = 1.90) was slightly superior to BMI-SDS (OR = 1.86) in predicting adverse lipid profiles. Compared to normal-weight patients, obese patients (BMI ≥97th percentile) exhibited increased systolic (+6.3 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (+3.9 mm Hg). However, this difference was only +4.8 mm Hg (systolic) and +2.6 mm Hg (diastolic) if WC >97th percentile was used. Conclusion: BMI-SDS is more closely associated with hypertension, while WC-SDS is more closely associated with dyslipidemia. However, the additional measurement of WC has only a small benefit in obese youths.Hormone Research in Paediatrics 09/2013; 80(3). DOI:10.1159/000354224 · 1.71 Impact Factor