Rate of contrast material extravasations and allergic-like reactions: effect of extrinsic warming of low-osmolality iodinated CT contrast material to 37 degrees C.

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, B2A209P, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 11/2011; 262(2):475-84. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.11111282
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To retrospectively determine whether extrinsic warming of the low-osmolality contrast material iopamidol to 37°C prior to intravenous administration at computed tomography (CT) affects extravasation and allergic-like reaction rates.
The need to obtain informed patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant and institutional review board-approved analysis. All adverse events related to the intravenous administration of iopamidol during CT examinations occurring 200 days before (period 1) and 200 days after (period 2) the cessation of extrinsic contrast material warming (37°C) for intravenous injections of less than 6 mL/sec at Duke University Medical Center (Durham, NC) were retrospectively reviewed. Adverse event rates were compared by using χ2 statistics.
There were 12,682 injections during period 1 (10,831 injections of iopamidol 300 and 1851 injections of iopamidol 370) and 12,138 injections (10, 064 injections of iopamidol 300 and 2074 injections of iopamidol 370) during period 2. Adverse event rates for iopamidol 300 were not affected by extrinsic warming (extravasation rates: 0.30% [32 of 10,831] in period 1 vs 0.23% [23 of 10,064] in period 2, P=.64; allergic-like reaction rates: 0.39% [42 of 10,831] in period 1 vs 0.46% [46 of 10,064] in period 2, P=.74; overall adverse events: 0.68% [74 of 10,831] in period 1 vs 0.69% [69 of 10,064] in period 2, P=.99). Discontinuation of extrinsic warming was associated with significantly increased extravasation and overall adverse event rates for iopamidol 370 (extravasation rates: 0.27% [five of 1851] vs 0.87% [18 of 2074], P=.05; allergic-like reaction rates: 0.16% [three of 1851] vs 0.39% [eight of 2074], P=.42; overall adverse events: 0.43% [eight of 1851] vs 1.25% [26 of 2074], P=.02).
Extrinsic warming (to 37°C) does not appear to affect adverse event rates for intravenous injections of iopamidol 300 of less than 6 mL/sec but is associated with a significant reduction in extravasation and overall adverse event rates for the more viscous iopamidol 370.

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