DNA double-strand breaks induced by high NaCl occur predominantly in gene deserts

Systems Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 11/2011; 108(51):20796-801. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1114677108
Source: PubMed


High concentration of NaCl increases DNA breaks both in cell culture and in vivo. The breaks remain elevated as long as NaCl concentration remains high and are rapidly repaired when the concentration is lowered. The exact nature of the breaks, and their location, has not been entirely clear, and it has not been evident how cells survive, replicate, and maintain genome integrity in environments like the renal inner medulla in which cells are constantly exposed to high NaCl concentration. Repair of the breaks after NaCl is reduced is accompanied by formation of foci containing phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), which occurs around DNA double-strand breaks and contributes to their repair. Here, we confirm by specific comet assay and pulsed-field electrophoresis that cells adapted to high NaCl have increased levels of double-strand breaks. Importantly, γH2AX foci that occur during repair of the breaks are nonrandomly distributed in the mouse genome. By chromatin immunoprecipitation using anti-γH2AX antibody, followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq), we find that during repair of double-strand breaks induced by high NaCl, γH2AX is predominantly localized to regions of the genome devoid of genes ("gene deserts"), indicating that the high NaCl-induced double-strand breaks are located there. Localization to gene deserts helps explain why the DNA breaks are less harmful than are the random breaks induced by genotoxic agents such as UV radiation, ionizing radiation, and oxidants. We propose that the universal presence of NaCl around animal cells has directly influenced the evolution of the structure of their genomes.

Download full-text


Available from: Natalia I Dmitrieva,
  • Source

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2011; 108(51):20281-2. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1117713109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancy most common in East Asia and Africa. Radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Unfortunately, disease response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy varies among patients with NPC, and many cases are resistant to cisplatin. Increased DNA damage repair is one of the mechanisms contributing to this resistance. Jab1/CSN5 is a multifunctional protein that participates in controlling cell proliferation and the stability of multiple proteins. Jab1 overexpression has been found to correlate with poor prognosis in several tumor types. However, the biological significance of Jab1 activity in response to cancer treatment is unclear. In this study, we used three NPC cell lines (CNE1, CNE2 and HONE1) to investigate the hypothesis that Jab1 positively regulates the DNA repair protein Rad51 and, in turn, cellular response to treatment with DNA-damaging agents such as cisplatin, ionizing radiation (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We found that Jab1 was overexpressed in two relatively cisplatin-, IR- and UV-resistant NPC cell lines, and knocking down its expression conferred sensitivity to cisplatin, IR and UV radiation. By contrast, exogenous Jab1 expression enhanced the resistance of NPC cells to cisplatin, IR and UV radiation. Moreover, we provide a mechanism by which Jab1 positively regulated Rad51 through p53-dependent pathway, and increased ectopic expression of Rad51 conferred cellular resistance to cisplatin, IR and UV radiation in Jab1-deficient cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that Jab1 has an important role in the cellular response to cisplatin and irradiation by regulating DNA damage and repair pathways. Therefore, Jab1 is a novel biomarker for predicting the outcome of patients with NPC who are treated with DNA-damaging agents.Oncogene advance online publication, 16 July 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.294.
    Oncogene 07/2012; 32(22). DOI:10.1038/onc.2012.294 · 8.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells are normally stressed by high interstitial NaCl in the renal medulla and by lesser elevation of NaCl in several other tissues. High NaCl damages proteins and DNA and can kill cells. Known protective responses include nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT5 and other proteins. In order better to understand the extent and significance of changes in nuclear protein abundance, we extracted nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins separately from HEK293 cells and measured by LC-MS/MS (iTRAQ) changes of abundance of proteins in the extracts in response to high NaCl at three time points: 1 hour, 8 hours, and adapted for two passages. We confidently identified a total of 3190 proteins. 163 proteins changed significantly at least at one time point in the nucleus. We discerned the biological significance of the changes by Gene Ontology and protein network analysis. Proteins that change in the nucleus include ones involved in protein folding and localization, microtubule-based process, regulation of cell death, cytoskeleton organization, DNA metabolic process, RNA processing, and cell cycle. Among striking changes in the nucleus, we found a decrease of all six 14-3-3 isoforms; dynamic changes of "cytoskeletal" proteins, suggestive of nucleoskeletal reorganization; rapid decrease of tubulins; and dynamic changes of heat shock proteins. Identification of these changes of nuclear protein abundance enhances our understanding of high NaCl-induced cellular stress, and provides leads to previously unknown damages and protective responses.
    Physiological Genomics 09/2012; 44(21). DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00068.2012 · 2.37 Impact Factor
Show more