Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B among foreign-born persons living in the United States by country of origin
ABSTRACT Estimates of the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the United States differ significantly, and the contribution of foreign-born (FB) persons has not been adequately described. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of FB persons in the United States living with CHB by their country of origin. We performed a systematic review for reports of HBsAg seroprevalence rates in 102 countries (covering PubMed from 1980 to July 2010). Data from 1,373 articles meeting inclusion criteria were extracted into country-specific databases. We identified 256 seroprevalence surveys in emigrants from 52 countries (including 689,078 persons) and 1,797 surveys in the general populations of 98 countries (including 17,861,035 persons). Surveys including individuals with lower or higher risk of CHB than the general population were excluded. Data were combined using meta-analytic methods to determine country-specific pooled CHB prevalence rates. Rates were multiplied by the number of FB living in the United States in 2009 by country of birth from the U.S. Census Bureau to yield the number of FB with CHB from each country. We estimate a total of 1.32 million (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.61) FB in the United States living with CHB in 2009; 58% migrated from Asia and 11% migrated from Africa, where hepatitis B is highly endemic. Approximately 7% migrated from Central America, a region with lower CHB rates, but many more emigrants to the United States. This analysis suggests that the number of FB persons living with CHB in the United States may be significantly greater than previously reported. Assuming 300,000-600,000 U.S.-born persons with CHB, the total prevalence of CHB in the United States may be as high as 2.2 million.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B (HBV) is an urgent, unmet public health issue that affects Asian Americans disproportionately. Of the estimated 1.2 million living with chronic hepatitis B in USA, more than 50% are of Asian ethnicity, despite the fact that Asian Americans constitute less than 6% of the total US population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends HBV screening of persons who are at high risk for the disease. Yet, large numbers of Asian Americans have not been diagnosed or tested, in large part because of perceived cultural and linguistic barriers. Primary care physicians are at the front line of the US health care system, and are in a position to identify individuals and families at risk. Clinical settings integrated into Asian American communities, where physicians are on staff and wellness care is emphasized, can provide testing for HBV. In this study, the Asian Health Coalition and its community partners conducted HBV screenings and follow-up linkage to care in both clinical and nonclinical settings. The nonclinic settings included health fair events organized by churches and social services agencies, and were able to reach large numbers of individuals. Twice as many Asian Americans were screened in nonclinical settings than in health clinics. Chi-square and independent samples t-test showed that participants from the two settings did not differ in test positivity, sex, insurance status, years of residence in USA, or education. Additionally, the same proportion of individuals found to be infected in the two groups underwent successful linkage to care. Nonclinical settings were as effective as clinical settings in screening for HBV, as well as in making treatment options available to those who tested positive; demographic factors did not confound the similarities. Further research is needed to evaluate if linkage to care can be accomplished equally efficiently on a larger scale.Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 01/2015; 8:1-9. DOI:10.2147/JMDH.S75239
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100 % (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75 % (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64 %, p < 0.001). Outreach campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations.Journal of Community Health 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9975-y · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Of the 5 types of viral hepatitis (HAV-HEV), HBV and HCV are by far the most common causes of chronic hepatitis in both pregnant and nonpregnant populations, causing more than 50% of cirrhosis cases and 78% of cases of primary liver cancer. Infection during pregnancy can have adverse effects on both the mother and her fetus. For all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes, early identification allows appropriate measures to be taken to optimize pregnancy outcomes and minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. This article reviews the prevention and management of all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2014.08.004 · 1.40 Impact Factor