Antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric hematology/oncology: new choices & new data.
ABSTRACT A severe complication of the treatment of pediatric cancers is the development of an invasive fungal infection (IFI). The data to support antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric oncology patients derive primarily from adult patients, and thus the optimal agent to utilize is not clear. Fluconazole has been a standard option, but agents with antimold activity are now available, each with limitations. Pediatric dosing for voriconazole and posaconazole is uncertain and multiple drug interactions exist. The echinocandins are well-tolerated, but only available in intravenous form. Ultimately, studies demonstrating biologic risk factors for the development of IFI may lead to personalized prophylactic strategies.
- SourceAvailable from: Jan Styczynski[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Invasive opportunistic fungal diseases (IFDs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients with cancer and those who have had an allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Apart from differences in underlying disorders and comorbidities relative to those of adults, IFDs in infants, children, and adolescents are unique with respect to their epidemiology, the usefulness of diagnostic methods, the pharmacology and dosing of antifungal agents, and the absence of interventional phase 3 clinical trials for guidance of evidence-based decisions. To better define the state of knowledge on IFDs in paediatric patients with cancer and allogeneic HSCT and to improve IFD diagnosis, prevention, and management, the Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-4) in 2011 convened a group that reviewed the scientific literature on IFDs and graded the available quality of evidence according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America grading system. The final considerations and recommendations of the group are summarised in this manuscript.The Lancet Oncology 07/2014; 15(8):e327-e340. · 24.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract. Although current therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children provide high cure rates, invasive fungal infections remain a significant source of mortality. We report a fatal case of cryptococcosis presenting as hepatic dys-function in a patient with ALL and Down syndrome. Autopsy results confirmed Cryptococcus septicemia with involvement of lungs, liver, and lymph nodes. The severity of the fungal sepsis and underlying immunosuppression probably contributed to the unusual presentation and fatal outcome. This report highlights the need to consider cryptococcal infection as a cause of sepsis syndrome in immunocompromised patients when bacterial cultures are negative.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 09/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a strong argument for the use of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk patients given the significant mortality associated with invasive fungal disease, the late identification of these infections, and the availability of safe and well-tolerated prophylactic medications. Clinical decisions about which patients should receive prophylaxis and choice of antifungal agent should be guided by risk stratification, knowledge of local fungal epidemiology, the efficacy and tolerability profile of available agents, and estimates such as number needed to treat and number needed to harm. There have been substantial changes in practice since the 2008 guidelines were published. These include the availability of new medications and/or formulations, and a focus on refining and simplifying patient risk stratification. Used in context, these guidelines aim to assist clinicians in providing optimal preventive care to this vulnerable patient demographic. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.Internal Medicine Journal 12/2014; 44(12b):1283-97. · 1.70 Impact Factor