Terasawa Y, Fukushima H, Umeda S. How does interoceptive awareness interact with the subjective experience of emotion? An fMRI study. Hum Brain Mapp 34: 598-612

Centre for Advanced Research on Logic and Sensibility (CARLS), Keio University, Minato-ku, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo, Japan
Human Brain Mapping (Impact Factor: 5.97). 01/2011; 34(3). DOI: 10.1002/hbm.21458
Source: PubMed


Recent studies in cognitive neuroscience have suggested that the integration of information about the internal bodily state and the external environment is crucial for the experience of emotion. Extensive overlap between the neural mechanisms underlying the subjective emotion and those involved in interoception (perception of that which is arising from inside the body) has been identified. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the neural substrates of interoception and emotional experience remain unclear. We examined the common and distinct features of the neural activity underlying evaluation of emotional and bodily state using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The right anterior insular cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) were identified as commonly activated areas. As both of these areas are considered critical for interoceptive awareness, these results suggest that attending to the bodily state underlies awareness of one's emotional state. Uniquely activated areas involved in the evaluation of emotional state included the temporal pole, posterior and anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Also the precuneus was functionally associated with activity of the right anterior insular cortex and VMPFC when evaluating emotional state. Our findings indicate that activation in these areas and the precuneus are functionally associated for accessing interoceptive information and underpinning subjective experience of the emotional state. Thus, awareness of one's own emotional state appears to involve the integration of interoceptive information with an interpretation of the current situation. Hum Brain Mapp, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "have indicated that we refer to our internal bodily state when we are aware of our emotional state . Additionally , our internal state modulates our emotional experience ( Bechara et al. , 1996 ; Pollatos et al . , 2005 ; Lane , 2008 ; Dunn et al ., 2010 ; Terasawa et al . , 2013a , b ) . The perception of afferent information arising from anywhere and everywhere within the body has been termed " interoception " ( Sherrington , 1906 ; Cameron , 2001 ) . Some methods have been developed as measurements of an individual ' s sensitivity to perceive interoception , such as the heartbeat perception task ( Schandry , 1"
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    ABSTRACT: The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions. In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness). Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger) as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness) and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional awareness.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6:1314. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01314 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "The insula is critical to the integration of emotional and homeostatic information , and may be involved in translating interoceptive signals into conscious feelings ( Critchley et al . , 2005 ; Critchley et al . , 2004 ; Naqvi and Bechara , 2009 ; Terasawa et al . , 2013a ) . For example , the magnitude of insula activation while participants evaluated their own emotional and bodily states was found to be associated with social anxiety and neuroticism ( Terasawa et al . , 2013b ) . Insula activation has also been associated with self - report measures of anxiety ( Stein et al . , 2007 ) and anticipation "
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4; mean age 19.6; and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.09.003 · 3.83 Impact Factor
    • "Several studies suggest that we refer to our own bodily state when evaluating our emotional state and that the areas mentioned above serve as common ground (Dunn et al., 2010; Gu et al., 2013b; Pollatos et al., 2005a). Different models propose that the subjective experience of emotion arises from the integration of interoceptive stimuli and external environmental stimuli in the aIC (Craig, 2009; Critchley, 2009; Gu et al., 2013a; Kurth et al., 2010; Terasawa et al., 2013a). Present results support the blending of interoception and emotion and highlight the role of internal cardiac triggers in the rapid encoding of emotional salience. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between ongoing brain interoceptive signals and emotional processes has been addressed only indirectly through external stimulus-locked measures. In this study, an internal body trigger (heart evoked potential, HEP) was used to measure ongoing internally triggered signals during emotional states. We employed high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), source reconstruction analysis, and behavioral measures to assess healthy participants watching emotion-inducing video-clips (positive, negative, and neutral emotions). Results showed emotional modulation of the HEP at specific source-space nodes of the fronto-insulo-temporal networks related to affective-cognitive integration. This study is the first to assess the direct convergence among continuous triggers of viscerosensory cortical markers and emotion through dynamic stimuli presentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical 07/2015; 193. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2015.06.006 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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