Role of carbohydrate receptors in the macrophage uptake of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO, Ferumoxides, Feridex), an important MRI intravenous contrast reagent, is efficiently recognized and eliminated by macrophages in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and atherosclerotic lesions. The receptors that recognize nanoparticles are poorly defined and understood. Since SPIO is coated with bacterial polysaccharide dextran, it is important to know whether carbohydrate recognition plays a role in nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Lectin-like receptors CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor) and SIGNR1 were previously shown to mediate uptake of bacterial polysaccharides. We transiently expressed receptors MGL-1, SIGNR-1 and msDectin-1 in non-macrophage 293T cells using lipofection. The expression was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. Following incubation with the nanoparticles, the uptake in receptor-expressing cells was not statistically different compared to control cells (GFP-transfected). At the same time, expression of scavenger receptor SR-A1 increased the uptake of nanoparticles three-fold compared to GFP-transfected and control vector-transfected cells. Blocking CD206 with anti-CD206 antibody or with the ligand mannan did not affect SPIO uptake by J774.A1 macrophages. Similarly, there was no inhibition of the uptake by anti-CD11b (Mac-1 integrin) antibody. Polyanionic scavenger receptor ligands heparin, polyinosinic acid, fucoidan and dextran sulfate decreased the uptake of SPIO by J774A.1 macrophages and Kupffer cells by 60-75%. These data unambiguously show that SPIO is taken up via interaction by scavenger receptors, but not via dextran recognition by carbohydrate receptors. Understanding of nanoparticle-receptor interaction can provide guidance for the design of long circulating, non-toxic nanomedicines.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is an immune response that marks several pathophysiological conditions in our body. Though adaptive immune cells play a major role in the progression of the disease, components of innate immune system, mainly monocytes and macrophages play the central role in onset of inflammation. Tissue-associated macrophages are widely distributed in the body showing tremendous anatomical and functional diversity and are actively involved in maintaining the homeostasis. They exhibit different phenotypes depending on their residing tissue microenvironment and the two major functional phenotypes are classically activated M1 phenotype showing pro-inflammatory characteristics and alternatively activated M2 phenotype demonstrating anti-inflammatory nature. Several cytokines, chemokines and other regulatory mediators delicately govern the balance of the two phenotypes in a tissue. This balance, however, is subverted during infection, injury or autoimmune response leading to increased population of M1 phenotype and subsequent chronic inflammatory disease states. This review underlines the role of macrophages in inflammatory diseases with an insight on potential molecular targets for nucleic acid therapy. Finally, some recent nanotechnology-based approaches to devise macrophage-specific targeted therapy have been highlighted.Journal of Controlled Release 04/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the challenge of optimizing iron delivery, new intravenous (iv) iron-carbohydrate complexes have been developed in the last few years. A good example of these new compounds is ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), which has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adult patients who are intolerant to oral iron or present an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, and in adult patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD). FCM is a robust and stable complex similar to ferritin, which minimizes the release of labile iron during administration, allowing higher doses to be administered in a single application and with a favorable cost-effective rate. Cumulative information from randomized, controlled, multicenter trials on a diverse range of indications, including patients with chronic heart failure, postpartum anemia/abnormal uterine bleeding, inflammatory bowel disease, NDD-CKD, and those undergoing hemodialysis, supports the efficacy of FCM for iron replacement in patients with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. Furthermore, as FCM is a dextran-free iron-carbohydrate complex (which has a very low risk for hypersensitivity reactions) with a small proportion of the reported adverse effects in a large number of subjects who received FCM, it may be considered a safe drug. Therefore, FCM appears as an interesting option to apply high doses of iron as a single infusion in a few minutes in order to obtain the quick replacement of iron stores. The present review on FCM summarizes diverse aspects such as pharmacology characteristics and analyzes trials on the efficacy/safety of FCM versus oral iron and different iv iron compounds in multiple clinical scenarios. Additionally, the information on cost effectiveness and data on change in quality of life are also discussed.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2475-2491. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mϕ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs.Nanomedicine 04/2014; 9(5):695-707. · 5.26 Impact Factor