Phase 2 study of capecitabine and irinotecan combination chemotherapy (modified XELIRI regimen) in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT The prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor, and no single chemotherapy regimen is recognized as a global standard. A phase 2 trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of the modified combination regimen of capecitabine and irinotecan (mXELIRI) in patients with AGC.
Patients with earlier untreated AGC received intravenous irinotecan (125 mg/m) over 90 minutes on days 1 and 8, and oral capecitabine (850 mg/m) twice daily on days 2 to 15, every 3 weeks. Treatment was continued for at most 8 cycles or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity.
Thirty-two patients were enrolled. In total, 141 cycles of mXELIRI were administered. The overall response rate was 43.7%, with 1 complete response and 13 partial responses. At a median follow-up of 16.2 months, median time to progression and overall survival were 5.6 months (95% confidence interval, 4.27-6.93 mo) and 11.0 months (95% confidence interval, 8.71-13.29 mo), respectively. The most common hematological adverse event was neutropenia (n=18, 56.3%); grade 3 neutropenia was observed in 5 patients, with neutropenic fever in only 2 patients. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were anorexia (n=3, 9.4%), nausea (n=3, 9.4%), vomiting (n=2, 6.3%), and diarrhea (n=2, 6.3%). There was no treatment-related death.
mXELIRI is a safe and effective first-line treatment for unresectable and metastatic gastric cancer with a manageable tolerability profile. It can be used as one of the first-line treatment options for patients with AGC.
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ABSTRACT: A multi-institutional collaborative late phase II study of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) was performed on patients with advanced gastric cancer. CPT-11 was administered as a 100 mg/m2 weekly intravenous infusion or as 150 mg/m2 fortnightly. Of 81 registered patients, 77 cases were eligible and 60 cases were evaluable for response. The overall response rate for evaluable cases was 23.3% (14/60), and the response rate was 16.1% (9/45) for the patients who had received prior chemotherapy. The primary tumor showed a 4.5% response, while metastatic lesions in the lymph-nodes, lungs, and liver showed response rates of 36.4%, 33.3%, and 17.4%, respectively. The major toxicities (> or = Grade 3) were leukopenia (41.2%), anemia (28.9%), diarrhea (22.4%) and anorexia (19.7%). These toxicities were generally reversible. CPT-11 showed activity against advanced gastric cancer, suggesting that further clinical studies of CPT-11 combined with other active chemotherapy agents are warranted.Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 06/1994; 21(7):1033-8.
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ABSTRACT: With the introduction of cisplatin-containing regimens in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, promising clinical results have been reported. A 61.5% response rate was observed with a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion and bolus cisplatin; however, the superiority of cisplatin-containing regimens to other regimens has not been clearly verified in any randomized controlled studies. A prospective, randomized study of 5-FU and cisplatin (FP) versus 5-FU, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C (FAM) versus 5-FU alone (FU) in previously untreated patients with advanced gastric cancer is reported. A total of 324 patients were entered into the trial and 295 patients (103 for FP, 98 for FAM, 94 for FU) were evaluable. The patients were randomized to receive FP, FAM, or FU after stratifying by the following factors: performance status, presence of measurable disease, and resection of the primary tumor. The overall response rate for patients with measurable disease in the FP arm was significantly higher than in the FAM and FU arms (51% for FP; 25% for FAM; 26% for FU). The durations of response for each arm, however, were not significantly different. Even though the median time to progression for the FP arm (21.8 weeks) was longer than that for the FAM arm (12 weeks; P < 0.05) and for the FU arm (9.1 weeks; P < 0.005), there was no statistical difference in overall survival among the three arms. Toxicity for all three regimens was moderate and consisted primarily of myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, and alopecia. Although the FP regimen showed a significantly higher response rate and a longer time to progression than the FAM or FU regimens, a survival benefit was not observed.Cancer 06/1993; 71(12):3813-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although many drug combination therapies have been proposed, there is no standard therapy for patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. The superiority of combination therapy over monochemotherapy has not been demonstrated convincingly. To explore the role of monochemotherapy, the authors evaluated 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), modulated by 6S-leucovorin (6S-LV) and a cisplatin-containing regimen, which was comprised of epirubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin with the addition of the reversal agent lonidamine (EEP-L). After stratification according to performance status (PS) and resection of the primary tumor, 72 patients with advanced gastric carcinoma were randomized to 2 parallel Phase II trials with 5-FU/6S-LV and EEP-L, respectively. Thirty-six patients in Study A received bolus 6S-LV, 100 mg/m2, followed by bolus 5-FU, 370 mg/m2, on Days 1-5 and 36 others in Study B received epirubicin, 30 mg/m2, on Days 1 and 5; etoposide, 100 mg/m2, on Days 1, 3, and 5; cisplatin, 30 mg/m2, on Days 2 and 4; and lonidamine, 150 mg/day. There were 6 partial responses (18.2%) (95% confidence interval [CI] +/- 13.2) in Study A and 7 partial responses (21.9%) (95% CI +/- 14.3) in Study B. Partial responses were more frequent in patients with resected tumors or with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0-1. The median duration of response was 8.8 and 8.3 months, respectively, in Study A and Study B. The median survival reached 8 months in Study A and 9 months in Study B. In the whole population of patients survival was significantly higher in patients with a PS of 0-1 (P < 0.05). Patients with a PS of 0-1 and a resected tumor had the significantly longest survival both in EEP-L treated patients and in all evaluable patients in the two studies. The most frequent World Health Organization Grade 3-4 toxic effects were gastrointestinal in Study A and hematologic in Study B. No treatment-related death was observed. The efficacy of 5-FU, modulated with 6S-LV, is moderate in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma, similar to cisplatin-containing regimens. PS and other prognostic factors could influence the response rate, which does not appear to be a reliable parameter for evaluating the outcome of chemotherapy trials.Cancer 05/1998; 82(8):1460-7. · 5.20 Impact Factor