Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus induce renal Erk1/2 pathway via ROS-induced and metalloproteinase-dependent EGF-receptor signaling

pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Biochemical pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.01). 11/2011; 83(2):286-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.11.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that the widely used immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506), independent of immunophilin binding, can activate profibrogenic transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/Smad signaling cascades in rat renal mesangial cells (MC). Here we report that both peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) inhibitors activate the extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK) a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induce a rapid and transient increase in ERK phosphorylation. The MEK inhibitor U0126, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a cell-permeant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and stigmatellin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex strongly attenuated the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by PPIase inhibitors. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies against heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and inhibition of the EGF receptor by either small interfering (si)RNA or AG1478, demonstrate that ERK activation by both PPIase inhibitors is mediated via HB-EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activation. The strong inhibitory effects achieved by GM6001 and TAPI-2 furthermore implicate the involvement of a desintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). Concomitantly, the PPIase inhibitor-induced ADAM17 secretase activity was significantly reduced by SOD and stigmatellin thus suggesting that mitochondrial ROS play a primary role in PPIase inhibitor-induced and ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF shedding. Functionally, both immunosuppressants caused a strong increase in MC proliferation which was similarly impeded when cells were treated in the presence of NAC, TAPI-2 or AG1478, respectively. Our data suggest that CsA and FK506, via ROS-dependent and ADAM17-catalyzed HB-EGF shedding induce the mitogenic ERK1/2 signaling cascade in renal MC.

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