Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus induce renal Erk1/2 pathway via ROS-induced and metalloproteinase-dependent EGF-receptor signaling.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that the widely used immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506), independent of immunophilin binding, can activate profibrogenic transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/Smad signaling cascades in rat renal mesangial cells (MC). Here we report that both peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) inhibitors activate the extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK) a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induce a rapid and transient increase in ERK phosphorylation. The MEK inhibitor U0126, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a cell-permeant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and stigmatellin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex strongly attenuated the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by PPIase inhibitors. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies against heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and inhibition of the EGF receptor by either small interfering (si)RNA or AG1478, demonstrate that ERK activation by both PPIase inhibitors is mediated via HB-EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activation. The strong inhibitory effects achieved by GM6001 and TAPI-2 furthermore implicate the involvement of a desintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). Concomitantly, the PPIase inhibitor-induced ADAM17 secretase activity was significantly reduced by SOD and stigmatellin thus suggesting that mitochondrial ROS play a primary role in PPIase inhibitor-induced and ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF shedding. Functionally, both immunosuppressants caused a strong increase in MC proliferation which was similarly impeded when cells were treated in the presence of NAC, TAPI-2 or AG1478, respectively. Our data suggest that CsA and FK506, via ROS-dependent and ADAM17-catalyzed HB-EGF shedding induce the mitogenic ERK1/2 signaling cascade in renal MC.
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ABSTRACT: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used extensively as a biocide and a wood preservative and has been reported to be immunosuppressive in rodents and humans. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) is a major metabolite of PCP. TCHQ has been identified as the main cause of PCP-induced genotoxicity due to reactive oxidant stress (ROS). However, the precise mechanisms associated with the immunotoxic effects of PCP and TCHQ remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PCP and TCHQ on the induction of ROS and injury to primary mouse splenocytes. Our results shown that TCHQ was more toxic than PCP and that a high dose of TCHQ led to necrotic cell death of the splenocytes through induction of massive and sudden ROS and prolonged ROS-triggered ERK activation. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) partially restored the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited ERK activity, elevated caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, and, eventually, switched the TCHQ-induced necrosis to apoptosis. We suggest that prolonged ERK activation is essential for TCHQ-induced necrosis, and that ROS play a pivotal role in the different TCHQ-induced cell death mechanisms.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89483. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089483 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The widely used immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent calcineurin inhibitor, significantly increases the incidence of cancer in organ transplant patients. Calcineurin signaling is an important mediator of VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. Negative regulation of calcineurin by its endogenous inhibitor, Down Syndrome Candidate Region-1 (DSCR1), suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis, in contrast to the effect observed after long-term CsA treatment. Despite the significance of calcineurin signaling in endothelial cells, the consequences of CsA on tumor angiogenesis has not been investigated. Using an in vivo model of skin carcinogenesis, prolonged treatment with CsA promoted tumor growth and angiogenesis. The addition of CsA to endothelial cells in vitro increased proliferation and migration in a calcineurin-independent manner and is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Co-treatment with antioxidants significantly abrogated CsA-induced endothelial cell activation. Furthermore, mice treated with antioxidants were protected against CsA-mediated tumor progression. Taken together, these findings suggest that CsA affects endothelial cells in a calcineurin-independent manner to potentiate tumor growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis through increasing mitochondrial ROS production. This work identifies a previously undescribed mechanism underlying a significantly adverse off-target effect of CsA and suggests that co-treatment with antioxidants would inhibit the tumor promoting effects of CsA. Implications: Targeting the pro-angiogenic effects of cyclosporin A may be useful in the management of transplant-associated cancers.Molecular Cancer Research 07/2014; 12(11). DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-14-0136 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Agonists induce platelet activation or apoptosis with concomitant shedding of the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) ectodomain in a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17)-dependent mechanism. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) plays a pivotal role in platelet activation or apoptosis. However, its impact on ADAM17-mediated GPIbα ectodomain shedding remains unclear. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that MPTP regulates ADAM17-dependent GPIbα ectodomain shedding. We showed that calcium ionophore A23187- or thrombin plus collagen-induced GPIbα ectodomain shedding was partially inhibited by a MPTP inhibitor, and a MPTP potentiator promoted A23187-induced GPIbα cleavage. Furthermore, A23187-induced elevation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels was blocked by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) inhibitor Ru360 or treatment with the membrane-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. We also demonstrated that an increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels triggered MPTP opening, as revealed by the examination of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential depolarization. In addition, A23187 induced-mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was blocked by the MPTP inhibitor or by treatment with the mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger. Lastly, A23187-induced GPIbα shedding was partially blocked by inhibitors of either ROS or calpain, and was completely inhibited when platelets were exposed to both inhibitors. Therefore, these observations indicate that MPTP opening triggered mitochondrial ROS production, which plays an important role in regulating ADAM17-mediated shedding of the GPIbα ectodomain in A23187-treated platelets.Platelets 08/2013; DOI:10.3109/09537104.2013.821604 · 2.63 Impact Factor