Inhibition of presynaptic Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase reduces readily releasable pool size at the avian end-bulb of Held synapse.

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
Neuroscience Research (Impact Factor: 2.2). 11/2011; 72(2):117-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.neures.2011.11.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A glutamatergic end-bulb synapse in the avian nucleus magnocellularis relays temporal sound information from the auditory nerve. Here, we show that presynaptic Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity at this synapse contributes to the maintenance of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of vesicles, thereby preserving synaptic strength. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings were made from chick brainstem slices to examine the effects of NKA blocker dihydroouabain (DHO) on synaptic transmission. DHO suppressed the amplitude of EPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. This suppression was caused by a decrease in the number of neurotransmitter quanta released because DHO increased the coefficient of variation of EPSC amplitude and reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of miniature EPSCs. Cumulative plots of EPSC amplitude during a stimulus train revealed that DHO reduced the RRP size without affecting vesicular release probability. DHO did not affect [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent processes, such as the paired-pulse ratio or recovery time course from the paired-pulse depression, suggesting a minimal effect on Ca(2+) concentration in the presynaptic terminal. Using mathematical models of synaptic depression, we further demonstrated the contribution of RRP size to the synaptic strength during a high-frequency stimulus train to highlight the importance of presynaptic NKA in the auditory synapse.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our recent work shows that in addition to pumping ions, Na/K-ATPase acts as a signal transducer. Binding of ouabain to Na/K-ATPase changes the interaction of the enzyme with neighboring membrane proteins and induces the formation of multiple signaling modules, resulting in activation of Src, transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR), and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interaction of these signals leads to activation of several other cascades, including p42/44 and p38 MAPKs, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C isozymes, in a cell-specific manner. Ouabain also increases [Ca(2+)](i) and contractility, induces some of the early-response protooncogenes, and activates transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB. Interplay among these pathways eventually results in changes in the expression of a number of growth-related genes and in cell growth. Significantly, inhibition of Src blocked many of the aforementioned ouabain-activated signaling pathways. Furthermore, Src binds to Na/K-ATPase directly and ouabain regulates the interaction between Src and the enzyme, resulting in Src activation. To address the possibility that the signaling Na/K-ATPase is concentrated in a separate pool on the plasma membrane, we have assessed interaction of the enzyme with caveolins. These studies indicated that Na/K-ATPase was concentrated in caveolae/rafts. In addition, caveolin-1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with Na/K-ATPase. Finally, we have shown that the signaling function of the enzyme is also pivotal to ouabain-induced nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2003; 986:497-503. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is a division of the avian cochlear nucleus that extracts the timing of auditory signals. We compared the membrane excitability and synaptic transmission along the tonotopic axis of NM. Neurons expressed a Kv1.1 potassium channel mRNA and protein predominantly in the high characteristic frequency (CF) region of NM. In contrast, the expression of Kv1.2 mRNA did not change tonotopically. Neurons also showed tonotopic gradients in resting potential, spike threshold, amplitude, and membrane rectification. All neurons were sensitive to 100 nm dendrotoxin, but the effects were most significant in the high CF neurons. The EPSC recorded by minimal stimulation of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) was 13 times larger in high CF neurons than in low CF neurons. Moreover, EPSCs were generated in an all-or-none manner in the high CF neurons when stimulus intensity was increased, whereas EPSCs were graded in the low CF neurons, indicating multiple axonal inputs. ANF synaptic terminals were visualized by DiI. ANF formed enfolding end-bulbs of Held around the cell body in the high and middle CF region but not in the low CF region. These observations indicate coordinated gradients of neuronal properties both presynaptically and postsynaptically along the tonotopic axis. Such specializations may be suitable for extracting and preserving the timing information of auditory signals over a wide range of acoustic frequencies.
    Journal of Neuroscience 09/2004; 24(34):7514-23. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synapses in the central nervous system undergo various short- and long-term changes in their strength, but it is often difficult to distinguish whether presynaptic or postsynaptic mechanisms are responsible for these changes. Using patch-clamp recording from giant synapses in the mouse auditory brainstem, we show here that short-term synaptic depression can be largely attributed to rapid depletion of a readily releasable pool of vesicles. Replenishment of this pool is highly dependent on the recent history of synaptic activity. High-frequency stimulation of presynaptic terminals significantly enhances the rate of replenishment. Broadening the presynaptic action potential with the potassium-channel blocker tetraethylammonium, which increases Ca2+ entry, further enhances the rate of replenishment. As this increase can be suppressed by the Ca2+-channel blocker Cd2+ or by the Ca2+ buffer EGTA, we conclude that Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is the key signal that dynamically regulates the refilling of the releasable pool of synaptic vesicles in response to different patterns of inputs.
    Nature 08/1998; 394(6691):384-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 5, 2014