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Analytical method development using functionalized polysulfone membranes for the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1509, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
Talanta (Impact Factor: 3.5). 12/2011; 87:284-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.10.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, functionalized polysulfone membrane has been utilized as a sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) in water samples. Two different functionalized polysulfones (i) phosphonic acid functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-A) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) membranes and (ii) phosphonic ester functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-E) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) were evaluated for the extraction of CHCs in water. A 10 ml of spiked water sample was extracted with 50mg piece of the functionalized membrane. After extraction, the membrane was desorbed by organic solvent and the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight CHCs, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB), 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD), 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methylbenzene (TCMB), 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were used as model compounds. Experimental parameters such as extraction time, desorption time, types of polymer membrane as well the nature of desorption solvent were optimized. Using optimum extraction conditions calibration curves were linear with coefficients of determination between 0.9954 and 0.9999 over wide range of concentrations (0.05-100 μgl(-1)). The method detection limits (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were in the range of 0.4-3.9 ng l(-1). The proposed method was evaluated for the determination of CHCs in drinking water samples.

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    ABSTRACT: Although hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was recently proposed as a candidate persistent organic pollutant (POP) under the Stockholm Convention, information about its environmental levels and distributions is still very limited. In this work, HCBD was determined in the sewage sludge from 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 23 cities and 17 soils near a chemical plant in China. Three chlorobenzenes (CBs) (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene) were simultaneously studied to help better understand the environmental behavior of HCBD. Concentrations of HCBD in sludge samples ranged from <0.03 to 74.3 ng/g dw with a median value of 0.30 ng/g dw, which was lower than those of the three CBs. Levels of HCBD were not correlated with capacity of the WWTPs and total organic carbon. For soils, high level of HCBD was found in the sample within the plant, with a rapid decreasing concentration trend with the increase of distance from the plant. It was suspected that releasing as a by-product during manufacturing of chlorinated chemicals was the primary source of HCBD in the studied location. Further risk assessment indicated that the environmental risk of HCBD to soil organisms and the health risk to employees were very low through soil exposure within the plant.
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