Inflammation and endothelial activation in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer

Department of Health Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Italy.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology (Impact Factor: 0.88). 09/2011; 37(5):617-22. DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382011000500008
Source: PubMed


Emerging insights underline a link among chronic inflammation and endothelial activation with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). We aim to investigate whether specific plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial activation allow to discriminate BPH and PCa.
Fifteen patients affected by BPH, 15 by PCa and 15 controls, were enrolled. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD40 ligand (CD40L), endothelial-selectin (E-selectin), platelet-selectin (P-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured.
In systemic blood samples, IL-6 has been found increased in patients affected by BPH (4.25 ± 0. pg/mL) and PCa (5.08 ± 0.24) respect to controls (2.62 ± 0.34; p < 0.05). CD40L was higher in BPH (4.25 ± 0.65 ng/mL; p < 0.05) than in control (2.31 ± 0.20) and PCa group (2.60 ± 0.56). E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1 did not show any significant difference. Higher levels of ICAM-1 were detected in patients with PCa (573.04 ± 52.23) and BPH (564.40 ± 74.67) than in the controls (215.30 ± 11.53 ng/mL; p < 0.05). In local blood samples, IL-6 has been found significantly increased in PCa in comparison with patients with BPH; there was no difference in CD40L, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1 ed ICAM-1.
Changes in inflammation and endothelial activation markers may be not considered to be of value in discriminating BPH and PCa.

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    • "The remaining 16 peaks (also found differentially expressed in presence of inflammation) seem to be strongly related to inflammation, hence they can not be used as markers of PCa (Table 4). The inflammatory process therefore appears to be a limiting factor in the search of biomarkers able to discriminate PCa from BPH and it has not be underrated, since it represents a key mechanism in the development and progression of both diseases [24]. Inflammation is often observed in tumors, with immune cell infiltration and activated stroma. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A more specific and early diagnostics for prostate cancer (PCa) is highly desirable. In this study, being inflammation the focus of our effort, serum protein profiles were analyzed in order to investigate if this parameter could interfere with the search of discriminating proteins between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Patients with clinical suspect of PCa and candidates for trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS) were enrolled. Histological specimens were examined in order to grade and classify the tumor, identify BPH and detect inflammation. Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-ToF-MS) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with Liquid Chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze immuno-depleted serum samples from patients with PCa and BPH. Results The comparison between PCa (with and without inflammation) and BPH (with and without inflammation) serum samples by SELDI-ToF-MS analysis did not show differences in protein expression, while changes were only observed when the concomitant presence of inflammation was taken into consideration. In fact, when samples with histological sign of inflammation were excluded, 20 significantly different protein peaks were detected. Subsequent comparisons (PCa with inflammation vs PCa without inflammation, and BPH with inflammation vs BPH without inflammation) showed that 16 proteins appeared to be modified in the presence of inflammation, while 4 protein peaks were not modified. With 2-DE analysis, comparing PCa without inflammation vs PCa with inflammation, and BPH without inflammation vs the same condition in the presence of inflammation, were identified 29 and 25 differentially expressed protein spots, respectively. Excluding samples with inflammation the comparison between PCa vs BPH showed 9 unique PCa proteins, 4 of which overlapped with those previously identified in the presence of inflammation, while other 2 were new proteins, not identified in our previous comparisons. Conclusions The present study indicates that inflammation might be a confounding parameter during the proteomic research of candidate biomarkers of PCa. These results indicate that some possible biomarker-candidate proteins are strongly influenced by the presence of inflammation, hence only a well-selected protein pattern should be considered for potential marker of PCa.
    Proteome Science 06/2014; 12(1):32. DOI:10.1186/1477-5956-12-32 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: This review aims to evaluate the available evidence on the role of prostatic inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recent findings: Although there is still no evidence of a causal relation, accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the development of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Inflammatory infiltrates are frequently observed in prostate tissue specimens from men with BPH and the presence or degree of inflammation has been found to be correlated with prostate volume and weight. The inflammatory injury may contribute to cytokine production by inflammatory cells driving local growth factor production and angiogenesis in the prostatic tissue. This proinflammatory microenvironment is closely related to BPH stromal hyperproliferation and tissue remodeling with a local hypoxia induced by increased oxygen demands by proliferating cells which supports chronic inflammation as a source of oxidative stress leading to tissue injury in infiltrating area. Summary: Although the pathogenesis of BPH is not yet fully understood and several mechanisms seem to be involved in the development and progression, recent studies strongly suggest that BPH is an immune inflammatory disease. The T-cell activity and associated autoimmune reaction seem to induce epithelial and stromal cell proliferation. Further understanding of the role of inflammation in BPH and clinical detection of this inflammation will expand the understanding of BPH pathogenesis and its histologic and clinical progression, allow risk stratification for patients presenting with BPH-related LUTS, and suggest novel treatment strategies.
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