Systematic review and meta-analysis of bifrontal electroconvulsive therapy versus bilateral and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy in depression.
ABSTRACT Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing efficacy and side effects of bifrontal (BF) ECT to bitemporal (BT) or unilateral (RUL) ECT in depression.
We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing BF ECT with RUL or BT ECT in depression. Eight trials (n=617) reported some cognitive outcome. Efficacy was measured by reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score. Cognitive outcomes were limited to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in seven studies, with two studies measuring each of: Complex-figure delayed recall, Trail-making tests and verbal learning.
Efficacy was equal between BF and BT ECT (Hedges's g=0.102, P=0.345, confidence interval (CI): -0.110, 0.313) and BF and RUL ECT (standardized mean difference=-0.12, P=0.365, CI: -0.378, 0.139). Post-treatment MMSE score decline was less for BF than BT ECT (g=0.89, CI: 0.054, 1.724) but not RUL ECT. RUL ECT impaired Complex figure recall more than BF ECT (g=0.76, CI :0.487, 1.035), but BF ECT impaired word recall more than RUL ECT (g=-1.45, CI: -2.75, -0.15).
Bifrontal ECT is not more effective than BT or RUL ECT but may have modest short-term benefits for specific memory domains. BF ECT has potential advantages, but given longer experience with BT and RUL, bifrontal ECT requires better characterization.
SourceAvailable from: Nancy Kerner[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence.02/2014; 4(1):33-54. DOI:10.2217/npy.14.3
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation after each session, anterograde amnesia for recently learned information, and retrograde amnesia for previously learned information. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive effects and underlying mechanisms of action of ECT remain poorly understood. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the multiple moderating and mediating factors that are thought to underlie the neurocognitive effects of ECT into a coherent model. Such factors include demographic and neuropsychological characteristics, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ECT technical parameters, and ECT-associated neurophysiological changes. Future research is warranted to evaluate and test this model, so that these findings may support the development of more refined clinical seizure therapy delivery approaches and efficacious cognitive remediation strategies to improve the use of this important and widely used intervention tool for neuropsychiatric diseases.The journal of ECT 05/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1097/YCT.0000000000000137 · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate leukocyte gene expression for 9 selected genes (mRNAs) as biological markers in patients with medication refractory depression before and after treatment with ECT or isoflurane anesthesia (ISO). Methods. In a substudy of a nonrandomized open-label trial comparing effects of ECT to ISO therapy, blood samples were obtained before and after treatment from 22 patients with refractory depression, and leukocyte mRNA was assessed by quantitative PCR. Patients' mRNAs were also compared to 17 healthy controls. Results. Relative to controls, patients before treatment showed significantly higher IL10 and DBI and lower ADRA2A and ASIC3 mRNA (P < 0.025). Both ECT and ISO induced significant decreases after treatment in 4 genes: IL10, NR3C1, DRD4, and Sult1A1. After treatment, patients' DBI, ASIC3, and ADRA2A mRNA remained dysregulated. Conclusion. Significant differences from controls and/or significant changes after ECT or ISO treatment were observed for 7 of the 9 mRNAs studied. Decreased expression of 4 genes after effective treatment with either ECT or ISO suggests possible overlap of underlying mechanisms. Three genes showing dysregulation before and after treatment may be trait-like biomarkers of medication refractory depression. Gene expression for these patients has the potential to facilitate diagnosis, clarify pathophysiology, and identify potential biomarkers for treatment effects.Depression research and treatment 04/2014; 2014:582380. DOI:10.1155/2014/582380This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.