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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives: To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among general medical inpatients and to investigate whether OSA risk is associated with in-hospital sleep quantity and quality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: General medicine ward in academic medical center Participants: 424 hospitalized adult patients >= 50 years old without a sleep disorder diagnosis (mean age 65 years, 57% female, 72% African American). Main Measures: The Berlin questionnaire, a validated screen for determining risk of OSA, was administered to hospitalized medical patients. Sleep duration and efficiency were measured via wrist actigraphy. Self-reported sleep quality was evaluated using Karolinska Sleep Quality Index (KSQI). Key Results: Two of every 5 inpatients >= 50 years old (39.5%, n = 168) were found to be at high risk for OSA. Mean in-hospital sleep duration was similar to 5 h and mean sleep efficiency was 70%. Using random effects linear regression models, we found that patients who screened at high risk for OSA obtained similar to 40 min less sleep per night (-39.6 min [-66.5, -12.8], p = 0.004). These findings remained significant after controlling for African American race, sex, and age quartiles. In similar models, those patients who screened at high risk had similar to 5.5% less sleep efficiency per night (-5.50 [-9.96, -1.05], p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, patients at high risk for OSA also had lower self-reported sleep quality on KSQI (-0.101 [-0.164, -0.037], p = 0.002). Conclusion: Two of every 5 inpatients older than 50 years screened at high risk for OSA. Those screening at high risk have worse in-hospital sleep quantity and quality.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 10(10). DOI:10.5664/jcsm.4098 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Sleep is known to be poor in the hospital. Patients frequently request pharmacological sleep aids, despite the risk of altered mental status (delirium) and falls. Little is known about the scope of pharmacological sleep aid use in hospitalized patients.METHODS We performed a single center, retrospective review of all patients admitted to the general adult (age >18 years) medical and surgical units of a tertiary care center during a recent 2-month period (January 2013–February 2013). Review of the electronic medication administration system was performed to assess for medications administered for sleep.RESULTSOf 642 unique admissions, 168 patients (26.2%) received a medication for sleep. Most (n = 115, 68.5%) had no known history of insomnia or regular prior sleep medication use. Patients most frequently were treated with trazodone (30.4%; median dose, 50 mg; range, 12.5–450 mg), lorazepam (24.4%; median, 0.5 mg; range, 0.25–2 mg), and zolpidem tartrate (17.9%; median, 10 mg; range, 2.5–10 mg). Of the medications given, 36.7% were given early (before 9 pm) or late (after midnight). Of patients not known to be previously taking a pharmacological sleep aid, 34.3% of them were discharged with a prescription for one.CONCLUSIONS Despite increasing evidence of risks such as delirium or falls, pharmacological sleep aid use in general wards remains common, even in elderly patients. Medication administration time is frequently suboptimal. Many previously sleep medication-naïve patients leave the hospital with a sleep aid prescription. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to the high rate of sleep medication use in hospitalized patients. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 10/2014; 9(10). DOI:10.1002/jhm.2246 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review Multiple lines of evidence support the conceptualization of bipolar disorder as a disorder of circadian rhythms. Considering bipolar disorder in the framework of circadian disturbances also helps understand the clinical phenomenology pointing toward a multisystemic involvement. Recent findings Patients with bipolar disorder show altered rhythmicity in body temperature and melatonin rhythms, high day-to-day variability in activity and sleep timing, persistent disturbances of sleep or wake cycles, including disturbances of sleep continuity. The internal clocks are, indeed, responsible for regulating a variety of physiologic functions, including appetitive behaviors, cognitive functions and metabolism. Summary An underlying circadian pathology in bipolar disorder is a unifying explicatory model for the high psychiatric and medical comorbidity observed during the long-term course of the disorder. This model also provides a rationale for therapeutic interventions aimed at re-entraining the internal clock.
    Current Opinion in Psychiatry 09/2014; 27(6). DOI:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000108 · 3.55 Impact Factor

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May 22, 2014