ABSTRACT Coronaviruses infect many species of animals including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases. This review focuses primarily on the pathogenesis of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV). MHV is a collection of strains, which provide models systems for the study of viral tropism and pathogenesis in several organs systems, including the central nervous system, the liver, and the lung, and has been cited as providing one of the few animal models for the study of chronic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. SARS-CoV emerged in the human population in China in 2002, causing a worldwide epidemic with severe morbidity and high mortality rates, particularly in older individuals. We review the pathogenesis of both viruses and the several reverse genetics systems that made much of these studies possible. We also review the functions of coronavirus proteins, structural, enzymatic, and accessory, with an emphasis on roles in pathogenesis. Structural proteins in addition to their roles in virion structure and morphogenesis also contribute significantly to viral spread in vivo and in antagonizing host cell responses. Nonstructural proteins include the small accessory proteins that are not at all conserved between MHV and SARS-CoV and the 16 conserved proteins encoded in the replicase locus, many of which have enzymatic activities in RNA metabolism or protein processing in addition to functions in antagonizing host response.
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ABSTRACT: Viruses are important pathogens of the nervous system. Here we describe the basic properties of viruses and the principles of virus classification, evolution, structure, and replication, with a focus on neurotropic viruses that are important neuropathogens of humans. These properties then provide the background for introductions to pathogenesis of viral diseases of the nervous system, host immune responses to virus infection, and the diagnosis and treatment of virus infections of the nervous system.Handbook of Clinical Neurology 01/2014; 123C:45-66. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-53488-0.00002-X
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ABSTRACT: In the coronavirus (CoV), the envelope spike (S) glycoprotein is responsible for CoV cell entry and host-to-host transmission. The S is a multifunctional glycoprotein that mediates both attachment of CoV particles to cell surface receptor molecules as well as membrane penetration by fusion. Receptor-binding domains (RBD) have been identified in the S of diverse CoV; they usually contain antigenic determinants targeted by antibodies that neutralize CoV infections. To penetrate host cells, the CoV can use various cell surface molecules, although they preferentially bind to ectoenzymes. Several crystal structures have determined the folding of CoV RBD and the mode by which they recognize cell entry receptors. Here we review the CoV-receptor complex structures reported to date, and highlight the distinct receptor recognition modes, common features, and key determinants of the binding specificity. Structural studies have established the basis for understanding receptor recognition diversity in CoV, its evolution and the adaptation of this virus family to different hosts. CoV responsible for recent outbreaks have extraordinary potential for cross-species transmission; their RBD bear large platforms specialized in recognition of receptors from different species, which facilitates host-to-host circulation and adaptation to man.Virus Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.10.005 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among the various respiratory viruses infecting human beings, coronaviruses are important pathogens, which usually infect the upper respiratory tract, where they are mainly associated with common colds. However, in more vulnerable populations, such as newborns, infants, the elderly and immune-compromised individuals, these opportunistic pathogens can also affect the lower respiratory tract, leading to pneumonia, exacerbations of asthma, and various types of respiratory distress syndrome. The respiratory involvement of human coronaviruses has been clearly established since the 1960's. Nevertheless, for almost three decades now, data reported in the scientific literature has also demonstrated that, like it was described for other human viruses, coronaviruses have neuroinvasive capacities since they can spread from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system (CNS). Once there, infection of CNS cells (neurotropism) could lead to human health problems, such as encephalitis and long-term neurological diseases. Neuroinvasive coronaviruses could damage the CNS as a result of misdirected host immune responses that could be associated with autoimmunity in susceptible individuals (virus-induced neuroimmunopathology) and/or viral replication, which directly induces damage to CNS cells (virus-induced neuropathology). Given all these properties, it has been suggested that these opportunistic human respiratory pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of neurologic diseases for which the etiology remains poorly understood. Herein, we present host and viral factors that participate in the regulation of the possible pathogenic processes associated with CNS infection by human coronaviruses and we try to decipher the intricate interplay between virus and host target cells in order to characterize their role in the virus life cycle as well as in the capacity of the cell to respond to viral invasion.Virus Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.09.011 · 2.83 Impact Factor