Personal Useof Complementary and
Alternative Medicine (CAM) by U.S.
Health Care Workers
Pamela Jo Johnson, Andrew Ward, LoriKnutson, and Sue
Objective. To examine personal use of complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM)among U.S. health care workers.
Data. Data are from the 2007 Alternative Health Supplement of the National Health
Interview Survey. We examined a nationally representative sample of employed adults
(n = 14,329), including a subsample employed in hospitals or ambulatory care settings
(n = 1,280).
Study Design. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds of past
year CAM use.
Principal Findings. Health care workers are more likely than the general population
to use CAM. Among health care workers, health care providers are more likely to use
CAMthan other occupations.
Conclusions. Personal CAM use by health care workers may influence the integra-
tion of CAM with conventional health care delivery. Future research on the effects of
personal CAM useby health care workers is therefore warranted.
Key Words. Complementary and alternative medicine, health care workforce,
National Health Interview Survey
The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies,
defined as therapies that are “not generally considered part of conventional
medicine” (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
2007) is substantial and has grown since the early 1990s in the United States
(Goldstein 2002). Eisenberg et al. examined 1990 national survey data about
CAM use and found that 34 percent of U.S. adults “reported using at least one
unconventional therapy in the past year, and a third of these saw providers for
unconventional therapy” (Eisenberg et al. 1993). Data from a 1997 follow-up
survey revealed an 8 percent increase in those who reported using at least one
Health Services Research
unconventional therapy in the past year and a 10 percent increase in those
who reported seeing a provider for unconventional therapy (Eisenberg et al.
1998; Wolsko et al. 2002). More recent studies indicate that the prevalence of
CAM use, although substantial, has increased for only a few therapies since
1997 (Tindle et al. 2005; Barnes, Bloom, and Nahin 2008). For example, a
study using data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
found that approximately 40 percent of adults used CAM therapies in the past
year. However, when compared with 2002 NHIS data, only the prevalence of
“acupuncture, deep breathing exercises, massage therapy, meditation, natur-
opathy, and yoga showed significant increases” (Barnes, Bloom, and Nahin
Increasingly, CAM therapies are being integrated with conventional
medicine. According to the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey
of Hospitals, the percentage of hospitals offering CAM has increased from 7.9
percent in 1998 to 19.8 percent in 2006 (Ananth 2009; Henkel 2010). The
widespread and growing consumer demand for CAM in the U.S. led Wyatt
and Post-White (2005) to write that conventional “health care must now catch
up with consumer practices to provide guidance in the safe and effective use”
of CAM.Cornman, Carr, and Heitkemper (2006) worried about missed bene-
fits of unused CAM and possible adverse reactions of CAM when misused,
contending that all health care workers should “possess knowledge regarding
the assessment of CAM use”. Thus, it is not surprising that, over the past two
decades, inclusion of CAM education has increased in medical schools (Wet-
zel, Eisenberg, and Kaptchuk 1998; Wetzel et al. 2003) and nursing schools
(Fentonand Morris2003; Helms2006).
Although researchers have documented the knowledge and attitudes of
healthprofessionalsabout CAM(Astinet al.1998;Brownet al.2007;Sewitch
et al. 2008; Rojas-Cooley and Grant 2009), few studies have investigated per-
sonal CAM use among those working in health care, and the existing studies
focus on small, specialized practitioner populations. To date, no study has
taken a population approach to CAM use among health care workers. Given
the prevalence of CAM use in the general population, evolving research that
Address correspondence to Pamela Jo Johnson, M.P.H., Ph.D., Center for Healthcare Innovation,
Allina Hospitals & Clinics, 2925 Chicago Avenue, Route 10105, Minneapolis, MN 55407; e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. AndrewWard, Ph.D., M.P.H.,Ph.D., is with the Division ofHealth Policy&
Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Lori Knutson, R.N., BSN, HN-BC, is
with the Penny George Institute for Health &Healing, Allina Hospitals & Clinics, Minneapolis,
MN. Sue Sendelbach, Ph.D., R.N., CCNS, FAHA, is with Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Allina
212HSR:Health Services Research 47:1, PartI (February2012)
supports the effectiveness of specific CAM therapies (Astin 2004; Furlan et al.
2008; Linde et al. 2009), the need for health care workers to provide safe and
effective treatments to patients, and the importance of having a healthy health
care workforce, this lacuna in research is not acceptable. Accordingly, the
present study uses nationally representative survey data to examine the types
of CAM therapies health care workers in the United States personally use,
their reasons for using CAM, and the differences in CAM use across health
care occupations. To provide context, we also compare CAM use among
health care workers to CAMuse in the rest of the employed population.
We examined personal CAM use by workers employed in hospitals and
ambulatory care settings (hereafter, “health care workers”) using the most
current nationally representative data available on complementary and
alternative health practices, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data
from 2007 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2008a). The NHIS is an
annual household survey of the health and health care of the U.S. nonin-
stitutionalized, civilian population (Gentleman and Pleis 2002). The NHIS
uses a multistage probability sample design with clustering and stratifica-
tion (National Center for Health Statistics, 2008b). The sample is drawn,
so that data analyzed using the sampling weights are representative of the
U.S. population. The 2007 NHIS household response rate was 87.1 per-
cent. Our analytic sample included adults, ages 18 and older, who
reported being employed in the previous week (n = 14,329 unweighted),
with primary analyses restricted to those employed in a hospital or ambu-
latory care setting (n = 1,280 unweighted).
To identify health care workers, we used data on respondents’ self-
reported main occupation during the week prior to their interview. We
defined occupational groups using the three categories identified in the
NHIS data, with a residual category for all other workers. The categories
identified were as follows: Health Diagnosing and Treating, hereafter “pro-
viders” (e.g., physicians, nurses), Health Technicians, hereafter “techni-
cians” (e.g., lab technologists, sonographers), and Health Care Support,
hereafter “support workers” (e.g., nursing aides, transcriptionists). The
residual category was all Other Occupations, hereafter “other occupations”
(e.g., management, secretaries, maintenance). We categorized the type of
Health CareWorkers’Personal CAM Use213
health care workplace using two industry sub-types identified in the
NHIS: Ambulatory Health Care (typically outpatient settings such as doc-
tors’ offices) and Hospitals.
The three primary outcomes of interest were global measures of past year
CAM use. Practitioner-based CAM indicates reported use of CAM therapies
delivered by a CAMpractitioner. Self-treatment with CAMindicates reported
useof CAMtherapies that are typically self-administered. AnyCAMusecom-
bines the two and indicates reported use of any of the CAMtherapies reported
in the NHIS.
The NHIS asks about 36 specific types of CAM therapies (see Appen-
dix 1). Although the National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM) recently revised its taxonomy of CAM therapies, we
organized the 36 therapies using the CAM taxonomy recommended by the
NCCAM at the time the NHIS data were collected: alternative medical sys-
tems, biologically based therapies, manipulative body therapies, mind-body
therapies, and energy healingtherapies (see Appendix 1) (Barnes, Bloom, and
Nahin 2008). Guided by the manner in which the NHIS CAM use question
was asked, we categorized each specific therapy as practitioner-based or self-
In the NHIS, reasons for using CAM therapies were elicited through
yes/no questions asked for each therapy used in the past year. Respondents
were asked whether each was used to improve energy, for general wellness, to
enhance immune function, because medical treatment did not help, because
medical treatment was too expensive, because it was recommended by a
health care provider, or because it was recommended by friends or family. We
aggregated “yes” responses for each of the seven reasons to create indicator
variables representing each reason for using any type of practitioner-based
therapy (e.g., practitioner-based therapy to improve energy), and indicator
variables representing each reason for using any type of self-treatment (e.g.,
self-treatment to improve energy). Specific health conditions treated with
CAMwere also elicited from respondents reporting CAMuse in the past year.
Variables for 87 health condition categories for each of the therapies were
available. We aggregated affirmative responses for each condition to create
variables representing any type of practitioner-based CAM used to treat each
214HSR:Health Services Research 47:1, PartI (February2012)
We identified potential covariates by reviewing studies suggesting that
CAM use varied across these characteristics (Bausell, Lee, and Berman 2001;
Bair et al. 2002; Grzywacz et al. 2005; Pagan and Pauly 2005). Variables
included gender, age group, race/ethnic group, nativity status, self-reported
health status, insurance coverage status,and geographicregionof residence.
First, we examined the extent to which background characteristics differed by
industryandbyoccupational group.Next,weestimatedtheprevalence ofpast
year use of CAM therapies among health care workers and other employed
adults in the United States. We used cross-tabulations and design-based F-tests
to test for differences. In three separate multivariate logistic regression mod-
els, we estimated the odds of any past year CAM use, the odds of practitioner-
based CAM use, and the odds of self-treatment with CAM for health care
workers compared with all other industries. We then restricted the sample to
only health care workers and estimated the three models of CAM use by
health care occupation and workplace. All models were adjusted for age, race/
ethnicity, gender, nativity status, self-reported health status, insurance status,
and geographic region. Finally, we estimated the weighted prevalence of
reported reasons for using CAM and reported health conditions treated with
CAM in the past year. All analyses were conducted with Stata statistical soft-
ware (SE version 10) and accounted for the NHIS's complex sampling design
Table 1 shows background characteristics by industry for all employed adults
and for the subsample of health care workers by occupational group and
workplace. In the overall sample of employed adults, there are significant dif-
ferences in all characteristics except geographic region. When restricted to
only health care workers, there are no significant differences in nativity status
or geographic region of residence, although there are statistically significant
differences in the demographic composition of the occupational groups. Spe-
cifically, providers have higher proportions of males, non-Hispanic whites,
hospital-based employment, insurance coverage, and excellent health status
than any othergroup.
Health CareWorkers’PersonalCAM Use215
Selected Characteristics(Weighted Percent) of Employed Adults by Industry by Occupation, NHIS 2007
216HSR:Health Services Research 47:1, PartI (February2012)
Table 1. Continued
Notes. DemographicdatafromNHIS Personfile andSampleAdult file 2007.
Health CareWorkers’Personal CAM Use 217
Table 2 shows the prevalence of CAM use by adults employed in health
care and in all other industries. Overall, 76 percent of health care workers
reported having used at least one of the CAM therapies listed in Table 2 in the
past year compared with 63 percent of the general population (p < .001).
Excluding diets, vitamins and minerals, and herbal supplements, health care
workers were still significantly more likely to report having used CAM in the
(CAM) Use by Type, Health Care Employees Compared with All Other
Prevalence of Past Year Complementary and Alternative Medicine
All EmployedAdults HealthCareIndustryOnly
Alternative medical systems
Biologically based therapies
Manipulative body therapies
3.0%2.0%0.050 2.9%3.8% 0.6%3.7%0.266
2.6%1.9% 0.150 2.5%2.2%2.1%3.1%0.907
<0.00176.6%66.0%63.3% 65.8% 0.009
0.9%0.3% 0.0042.1% 0.0% 1.5%0.1% 0.024
<0.001 83.3% 75.2%68.1%73.1% 0.002
Notes.Data fromNHIS SampleAdult,AlternativeHealth Supplementfile 2007.
218HSR:Health Services Research 47:1, PartI (February2012)
past yearcompared with the general population (41 percentversus30 percent,
p < .001). Health care workers are also significantly more likely to report
using any practitioner-based CAM and to report any self-treatment with
CAM in the past year than adults employed in other industries. Among health
(CAM)Use for Employed U.S. Adults by Industry
Odds of Past Year Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Any CAM Use Practitioner-BasedCAMSelf-TreatmentCAM
OR95%CI p-valueOR 95%CIp-value OR95%CIp-value
1.6 1.1-1.6 0.001 1.0-1.40.0961.3-1.9
<0.001 1.4 1.2-1.7
1.0 1.0 1.0
<0.001 1.6 1.2-2.1
0.90.7-1.10.277 1.5 1.1-2.10.016 0.60.5-0.8
1.0 1.0 1.0
1.0 0.9-1.1 0.4091.00.9-1.20.407 1.11.0-1.2 0.078
1.11.1-1.40.004 1.1-1.60.003 0.9-1.30.258
Health CareWorkers’PersonalCAM Use219
care workers, we found statistically significant differences by occupational
group in use of practitioner-based CAM and self-treatment with CAM in the
Table 3 presents the results of three logistic regression models estimat-
ing the odds of CAM use by health care workers compared with employees in
all other industries. After adjusting for background characteristics, health care
workers had significantly higher odds of any CAM use and self-treatment with
CAM compared with employees in other industries. No difference was
detected in the use of practitioner-based CAM between health care workers
Table 4displays theresultsofthree logisticregressionmodelsestimating
the odds ofCAMuse amongonlyhealth careworkers byworkplace andoccu-
pational group. Overall, those employed in ambulatory care settings are sig-
nificantly more likely to have used CAM in the past year compared with those
employed in hospitals. When comparing occupational groups, providers,
technicians, and other occupations were all significantly more likely to have
used any CAM in the past year compared with support workers. Providers
had over twice the odds (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95 percent CI = 1.3–3.8) of past
year practitioner-based CAM use and nearly three times the odds (adjusted
OR = 2.7, 95 percent CI = 1.6–4.5) of self-treatment with CAM compared
with support workers. Technicians and other occupations were also signifi-
cantly more likely to have self-treated with CAM in the past year compared
with support occupations.
Finally, we examined the reasons why health care workers used CAM in
the past year (data not shown). The most common reason given for CAM use
was general wellness (67.8 percent), whereas the least common reason wasthat
traditional medical care was too expensive (3.9 percent). Back, neck, or joint
pain were the most commonly reported health conditions for overall CAM
tion for CAMself-treatment was anxiety.
This study provides the first population-based description of CAM use by
U.S. health care workers. Our analyses reveal that, overall, health care work-
ersare significantlymore likely touse CAMtherapies,particularly mind-body
therapies, than the employed U.S. population. This is not surprising as health
care workers, particularly those in ambulatory care settings, are more exposed
220HSR:Health Services Research 47:1, PartI (February2012)
(CAM)Use for U.S.Health Care Workersby Occupation and Workplace
Odds of Past Year Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Any CAM Use Practitioner-BasedCAMSelf-TreatmentCAM
OR95%CIp-valueOR 95%CIp-value OR95%CI p-value
1.61.0-2.50.037 1.61.0-2.7 0.074 1.81.1-3.0 0.028
1.41.0-2.10.056 1.0-2.4 0.0640.92-2.00 0.119
1.3 0.9-1.9 0.108 2.71.6-4.5
1.70.9-3.30.094 2.11.0-4.50.053 1.50.79-2.800.222
0.80.5-1.5 0.5061.80.8-3.80.158 0.70.40-1.23 0.215
1.00.7-1.3 0.782 0.90.7-1.3 0.6691.00.70-1.33 0.823
Note. Self-treatment excludesherbs,vitamins,anddiet-basedtherapies.
Health CareWorkers’Personal CAM Use221
to these methods, and exposure is probably correlated with higher use. Our
prevalence of CAM use in narrowly defined health care worker populations.
For example, one study found that 63 percent of nurse practitioners in Con-
necticut reported personal use of CAM (Hayes and Alexander 2000), whereas
another reported 96 percent of critical care nurses across the United States
had personal experience with CAM (Lindquist, Tracy, and Savik 2003). Stud-
ies of physicians reveal a lower prevalence of personal CAM use. One study
reported that 24 percent of physicians in Denver had personally used CAM
(Corbin Winslow and Shapiro 2002), whereas another found that 49 percent
of primary care clinicians in Kentucky reported personal use of CAM in the
past year (Flannery et al. 2006). A high percentage of health professions fac-
ulty report CAM use, with 83 percent of primary care faculty at one medical
school having ever used CAM (Levine, Weber-Levine, and Mayberry 2003)
and 100 percent of nursing faculty in another university having personally
used a CAMtherapy (Halconet al.2003).
The health conditions for which health care workers reported CAM use
were similar to those of CAM users in the general population. In this study,
the three predominant health conditionsleadingto CAMin the past year were
back, neck, and joint pain. Similarly, Eisenberg et al. (1998) found that having
a back problem was the most frequently reported medical condition associ-
ated with CAM use in the past year and a recent national survey found the
majority of adults who used CAMduring the past year reported back, neck, or
joint pain (Barnes, Bloom, and Nahin 2008). This may be a reflection, in part,
of the fact that chiropractic is now covered by Medicare and many private and
public insurance plans (Ernst 2008).
There are several study limitations. First, the health care industry and
occupation categories in our analyses are broad. We were limited to the indus-
try sub-types identified in the NHIS data. Moreover, NHIS does not release
detailed occupation categories and has combined providers in a single group
since 2005. Thus, use of gross health care occupation categories may mask
heterogeneity of CAM use within each category. Second, the NHIS alterna-
tive health supplement is a periodic addition to the annual survey. A single
year of NHIS data results in small group-specific sample sizes inhibiting com-
prehensive group-specific analyses. Third, in the NHIS, CAM use is self-
reported, which depends on respondents’ ability to properly identify CAM
therapies that have been used; an identification that may be erroneous (Fen-
nell, Liberato, and Zsembik 2009). For example, the high prevalence of vita-
min and mineral use is probably due to the inclusion of daily multivitamin
222 HSR: Health Services Research 47:1,PartI (February2012)
supplementation, not typically considered a CAM therapy. Consequently, we
ran our analyses both including and excluding diets, vitamins and minerals,
and herbal supplements. Although the prevalence estimates changed, the
overall conclusions did not. Finally, we categorized therapies as practitioner-
based or self-treatment, but some therapies classified as self-administered may
have resulted from a CAMpractitionervisit.
Even with these limitations, our results are suggestive of why
CAM therapies are increasingly integrated into health care. There is evi-
dence that personal use of CAM by health care workers is related to
the provision of, referral for, or general openness to the integration of
CAM therapies in health care practices. For example, Tracy et al.
(2005) reported a strong correlation between personal use of specific
CAM therapies among critical care nurses and the use of those same
CAM therapies in practice. Thus, personal use of CAM by health care
workers may be a principal determinant in the movement toward “inte-
grative care”—the mainstreaming of CAM with allopathic medicine
(Mann, Gaylord, and Norton 2004; Winnick 2005). In addition, in the
context of recent federal health reform changes, in 2014 when the
health insurance exchanges begin, states may be more ready to license
practitioners of various CAM therapies and thus require insurance cov-
erage for CAM. The possibility of such institutionalized changes of
CAM's role in health care, as well as the need for a healthy health care
workforce, strongly suggests the need for further research to understand
the reasons for health care workers’ CAM use as well as the possible
benefits and risks of such use. CAM use is a significant and growing
component of health care and health promotion and as such necessitates
the same due diligence in education, training, and research as any other
health care practice.
Joint Acknowledgment/Disclosure Statement: Dr. Johnson conceived the study,
acquired the data, analyzed and interpreted the data, led the writing of the
manuscript, and oversaw all aspects of the study. Dr. Ward contributed to the
study design, interpretation of the data, drafting and critically revising the
manuscript, review of the literature, and citation management. Ms. Knutson
assisted with interpreting the data, critically revised the manuscript, and
Health CareWorkers’Personal CAM Use223
approved the final version. Dr. Sendelbach assisted with interpreting the data,
critically revised the manuscript, and approved the final version.
Disclaimers: Publicly available data were obtained from the National
Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Analyses, interpretation, and conclu-
sions are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of
the Division of Health InterviewStatistics orNCHS.
Ananth, S. 2009. “A Steady Growth in CAM Services.” Hospitals & Health Networks
Magazine. March 31 [accessed October 14, 2010]. Available at http://www.hhn-
Astin, J.A. 2004. “Mind-Body Therapies for the Management of Pain.” Clinical Journal
ofPain20 (1): 27–32.
Astin, J.A., A. Marie, K.R. Pelletier, E. Hansen, and W.L. Haskell. 1998. “A Review of
the Incorporation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Mainstream
Physicians.” Archives ofInternal Medicine158 (21): 2303–10.
Bair, Y.A., E.B. Gold, G.A. Greendale, B. Sternfeld, S.R. Adler, R. Azari, and M. Har-
key. 2002. “Ethnic Differences in Use of Complementary and Alternative Medi-
cine at Midlife: Longitudinal Results from SWAN Participants.” American Journal
ofPublic Health92 (11): 1832–40.
icine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007.” National Health Sta-
tistics Report 12: 1–23.
Bausell, R.B., W.L. Lee, and B.M. Berman. 2001. “Demographic and Health-Related
Correlates to Visits to Complementary and Alternative Medical Providers.”
Medical Care39 (2): 190–6.
and C. Fernandez. 2007. “Complementary and Alternative Therapies: Survey of
Knowledge andAttitudesofHealthProfessionals ata Tertiary Pediatric/Women's
Corbin Winslow, L., and H. Shapiro. 2002. “Physicians Want Education about Com-
plementary and Alternative Medicine to Enhance Communication with their
Patients.” Archives ofInternal Medicine162 (10): 1176–81.
Cornman, B.J., C.A. Carr, and M.M. Heitkemper. 2006. “Integrating CAM into Nurs-
ing Curricula: CAM Camp as an Educational Intervention.” Explore (NY) 2 (3):
Eisenberg, D.M., R.C. Kessler, C. Foster, F.E. Norlock, D.R. Calkins, and T.L. Delb-
anco. 1993. “Unconventional Medicine in the United States. Prevalence, Costs,
andPatterns ofUse.”New England Journal ofMedicine 328 (4): 246–52.
224HSR: Health Services Research 47:1, Part I (February2012)
Eisenberg, D.M., R.B. Davis, S.L. Ettner, S. Appel, S. Wilkey, M. Van Rompay, and R.
C. Kessler. 1998. “Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States,
1990–1997: Results of a Follow-Up National Survey.” Journal of the American Med-
ical Association 280 (18): 1569–75.
Ernst, E.. 2008. “Chiropractic: A Critical Evaluation.” Journal of Painand SymptomMan-
agement 35 (5): 544–62.
Fennell, D., A.S. Liberato, and B. Zsembik. 2009. “Definitions and Patterns of CAM
Use bythe Lay Public.” Complementary Therapiesin Medicine 17 (2): 71–7.
Fenton, M.V., and D.L. Morris. 2003. “The Integration of Holistic Nursing Practices
and Complementary and Alternative Modalities into Curricula of Schools of
Nursing.” Alternative Therapies inHealth and Medicine 9 (4): 62–7.
Flannery, M.A., M.M. Love, K.A. Pearce, J.J. Luan, andW.G. Elder. 2006. “Communi-
cation About Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Perspectives of Pri-
mary CareClinicians.”Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine12 (1): 56–63.
Furlan, A.D., M. Imamura, T. Dryden, and E. Irvin. 2008. “Massage for Low-Back
Pain.” Cochrane Database ofSystematicReviews xx(4):CD001929.
Gentleman, J.F., and J.R. Pleis. 2002. “The National Health Interview Survey: An
Overview.”Effective Clinical Practice 5(3suppl): E2.
Goldstein, M.S.. 2002. “The Emerging Socioeconomic and Political Support for Alter-
native Medicine in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science 583: 44–63.
Grzywacz, J.G., W. Lang, C. Suerken, S.A. Quandt, R.A. Bell, and T.A. Arcury. 2005.
“Age, Race, and Ethnicity in the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medi-
cine for Health Self-Management: Evidence from the 2002 National Health
InterviewSurvey.” Journal of Aging & Health17 (5): 547–72.
Halcon, L.L., L.L. Chlan, M.J. Kreitzer, and B.J. Leonard. 2003. “Complementary
Therapies and Healing Practices: Faculty/Student Beliefs and Attitudes and the
Implications for Nursing Education.” Journal of Professional Nursing 19 (6): 387–
Hayes, K.M., and I.M. Alexander. 2000. “Alternative Therapies and Nurse Practitio-
ners: Knowledge, Professional Experience, and Personal Use.” Holistic Nursing
Practice 14 (3): 49–58.
Helms, J.E. 2006. “Complementary and Alternative Therapies: A New Frontier for
Nursing Education?” Journal of NursingEducation 45 (3): 117–23.
Henkel, G..2010.“Complementary andAlternative Medicine Use Doubles.”The Hosp-
italist [accessed May 9, 2011]. Available at http://www.the-hospitalist.org/
Levine, S.M., M.L. Weber-Levine, and R.M. Mayberry. 2003. “Complementary and
Alternative Medical Practices: Training, Experience, and Attitudes of a Primary
Care Medical School Faculty.” Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 16
Linde, K., G. Allais, B. Brinkhaus, E. Manheimer, A. Vickers, and A.R. White. 2009.
“Acupuncture for Tension-Type Headache.” Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews xx(1): CD007587.
Health CareWorkers’Personal CAM Use 225
Lindquist, R., M.F. Tracy, and K. Savik. 2003. “Personal Use of Complementary and
Alternative Therapies by Critical Care Nurses.” Critical Care Nursing Clinics of
North America15 (3): 393–9.
Mann, D., S. Gaylord, and S. Norton. 2004. “Moving Toward Integrative Care: Ratio-
nales, Models, and Steps for Conventional-Care Providers.” Complementary
Health Practice Review 9 (3): 155–72.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007. “What Is Com-
plementary and Alternative Medicine?” [accessed June 8, 2010]. Available at:
National Center for Health Statistics. 2008a. Data File Documentation, National Health
Interview Survey, 2007 (Machine Readable Data File and Documentation). Hyattsville,
MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Pre-
National Center for Health Statistics. 2008b. 2007 National Health Interview Survey
(NHIS) Public Use Data Release: NHIS Survey Description. Hyattsville, MD: Cen-
ters for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Departmentof Health and Human
Pagan, J.A., and M.V. Pauly. 2005. “Access to Conventional Medical Care and the Use
of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” Health Affairs (Millwood) 24 (1):
Rojas-Cooley, M.T., and M. Grant. 2009. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine:
Oncology Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes.” Oncology Nursing Forum 36 (2):
Sewitch, M.J., M. Cepoiu, N. Rigillo, and D. Sproule. 2008. “A Literature Review of
Health Care Professional Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative
Medicine.” Complementary Health Practice Review 13 (3): 139–54.
StataCorp.2007.Survey Data Reference Manual.College Station, TX: Stata Press.
Tindle, H.A., R.B. Davis, R.S. Phillips, and D.M. Eisenberg. 2005. “Trends in Use of
Complementary and Alternative Medicine by U.S. Adults: 1997–2002.” Alterna-
tive Therapies in Healthand Medicine 11 (1): 42–9.
Tracy, M.F., R. Lindquist, K. Savik, S. Watanuki, S. Sendelbach, M.J. Kreitzer, and
B. Berman. 2005. “Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies: A
National Survey of Critical Care Nurses.” American Journal of Critical Care 14 (5):
Wetzel, M.S., D.M. Eisenberg, and T.J. Kaptchuk. 1998. “Courses Involving Comple-
mentary and Alternative Medicine at US Medical Schools.” Journal of the Ameri-
can Medical Association 280 (9): 784–7.
Wetzel, M.S., T.J. Kaptchuk, A. Haramati, and D.M. Eisenberg. 2003. “Complemen-
tary and Alternative Medical Therapies: Implications for Medical Education.”
Annals ofInternal Medicine 138 (3): 191–6.
Winnick, T.A.. 2005. “From Quackery to Complementary Medicine: The American
Medical Profession Confronts Alternative Therapies.” Social Problems 52 (1): 38–
Wolsko, P.M., D.M. Eisenberg, R.B. Davis, S.L. Ettner, and R.S. Phillips. 2002.
“Insurance Coverage, Medical Conditions, and Visits to Alternative Medicine
226HSR: Health Services Research 47:1,PartI (February2012)
Providers: Results of a National Survey.” Archives of Internal Medicine 162 (3): Download full-text
Wyatt, G., and J. Post-White. 2005. “Future Direction of Complementary and Alterna-
tive Medicine (CAM) Education and Research.” Seminars in Oncology Nursing 21
Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this
Table A1: Classification of CAM Therapies in the NHIS Alternative
Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or func-
tionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries
(other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author
for the article.
Health CareWorkers’PersonalCAM Use227