Psychotropic Medication Burden and Factors Associated with Antipsychotic Use: An Analysis of a Population-Based Sample of Community-Dwelling Older Persons with Dementia
ABSTRACT To estimate the proportion of community-dwelling older adults with dementia being prescribed a psychotropic and to identify patient and caregiver factors associated with antipsychotic use.
Retrospective cohort study of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) from 2002 to 2004 designed to assess dementia severity and service use of community-dwelling older adults. The frequency of psychotropic medication (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines) use was tabulated and weighted to the U.S. population according to dementia diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with antipsychotic use.
The 307 ADAMS participants had the following dementia diagnoses: Alzheimer's disease (69.3%), vascular dementia (17.7%), and other dementia (12.4%). The proportion of participants prescribed a psychotropic medication broken down according to therapeutic class was 19.1% antipsychotics, 29.1% antidepressants, 9.8% benzodiazepines, and 8.8% anticonvulsants. Older adults with dementia were significantly more likely to receive an antipsychotic if they had moderate (odds ratio (OR) = 7.4, P = .002) or severe (OR = 5.80, P = .002) dementia than if they had mild dementia or were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (OR = 6.7, P = .04) compared to vascular dementia. Older adults with dementia who lived with a caregiver were significantly less likely to taking an antipsychotic (OR = 0.19, P = .001) than those who lived alone. Also, persons with dementia were significantly less likely to be prescribed an antipsychotic if their caregiver was clinically depressed (OR = 0.03, P = .005) than if their caregiver was not depressed.
Psychotropic medication use is common in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. Caregivers appear to have a substantial effect on whether an antipsychotic is prescribed, which adds additional complexity to conversations discussing the risk:benefit ratio of this medication class.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Linda L Emanuel, Jun 11, 2014
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Administration of scheduled antipsychotic therapy to mechanically ventilated patients to prevent or treat delirium is common, despite the lack of evidence to support its use. Among long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), the frequency of scheduled antipsychotic therapy use, and the factors and outcomes associated with it, have not been described.OBJECTIVE:To identify scheduled antipsychotic therapy prescribing practices, and the factors and outcomes associated with the use of antipsychotics, among LTACH patients requiring PMV.METHODS:Consecutive patients without major psychiatric disorders or dementia who were admitted to an LTACH for PMV over 1 year were categorized as those receiving scheduled antipsychotic therapy (≥24 hours of use) and those not receiving scheduled antipsychotic therapy. Presence of delirium, use of psychiatric evaluation, nonscheduled antipsychotic therapy, and scheduled antipsychotic therapy-related adverse effects were extracted and compared between the 2 groups and when significant (p ≤ 0.05), were entered into a regression analysis using generalized estimating equation techniques.RESULTS:Among 80 patients included, 39% (31) received scheduled antipsychotic therapy and 61% (49) did not. Baseline characteristics, including age, sex, illness severity, and medical history, were similar between the 2 groups. Scheduled antipsychotic therapy was administered on 52% of LTACH days for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 25 (6-38) days and, in the antipsychotic group, was initiated at an outside hospital (45%) or on day 2 (1-6; median [IQR]} of the LTACH stay (55%). Quetiapine was the most frequently administered scheduled antipsychotic (77%; median dose 50 [37-72] mg/day). Use of scheduled antipsychotic therapy was associated with a greater incidence of psychiatric evaluation (OR 5.7; p = 0.01), delirium (OR 2.4; p = 0.05), as-needed antipsychotic use (OR 4.1; p = 0.005) and 1:1 sitter use (OR 7.3; p = 0.001), but not benzodiazepine use (p = 0.19).CONCLUSIONS:Among LTACH patients requiring PMV, scheduled antipsychotic therapy is used frequently and is associated with a greater incidence of psychiatric evaluation, delirium, as-needed psychotic use, and sitter use. Although scheduled antipsychotic therapy-related adverse effects are uncommon, these effects are infrequently monitored.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 02/2013; 47(2). DOI:10.1345/aph.1R521 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dementia patients suffering from behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are often treated with antipsychotics. Trial results document an increased risk for serious adverse events and mortality in dementia patients taking these agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of treating BPSD with antipsychotics seems to be only modest. Using data of a German statutory health insurance company, we examined prescription trends of antipsychotics in prevalent dementia patients in the context of official warnings. The study period is 2004-2009. We studied trends in demographics, age and sex, as well as need of care and the intake of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Seeking for linear trends adjusted for age, sex and level of care between 2004 and 2009, we obtained p-values from a multivariate logistic regression. Prescription volumes were calculated by number of packages as well as defined daily doses (DDDs) using multiple linear regressions for trends in prescriptions amount. We included 3460-8042 patients per year (mean age 80 years). The prescription prevalence of antipsychotics decreased from 35.5% in 2004 to 32.5% in 2009 (multivariate analysis for linear trend: p=0.1645). Overall prescriptions for typical antipsychotics decreased (from 27.2% in 2004 to 23.0% in 2009, p<0.0001) and prescriptions for atypical antipsychotics increased from 17.1% to 18.9% (p<0.0001). The mean DDD per treated patient increased from 80.5 to 91.2 (2004-2009; p=0.0047). Our findings imply that warnings of international drug authorities and manufacturers against adverse drug events in dementia patients receiving antipsychotics did not impact overall prescription behavior.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2013; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.02.001 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To describe population-based use of cognitive-enhancing and psychopharmacological medications across care settings in Medicare beneficiaries with dementia. DESIGN: One-year (2008) cross-sectional study. SETTING: Medicare administrative claims from a 5% random sample. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries with dementia aged 65 and older with continuous Medicare Parts A, B, and D coverage and alive throughout 2008. To ascertain dementia, one or more medical claims with a dementia International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code was required before 2008, and an additional claim was required in 2008 to confirm active disease. MEASUREMENTS: Use of medications commonly prescribed in managing dementia (cognitive enhancers, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers) was assessed using three measures: annual prevalence of use, consistency of use, and count of psychopharmacological medication classes. Care setting was determined using the number of months of nursing home (NH) residency: no NH (0 months), partial NH (1-11 months), and full NH (12 months). RESULTS: Community-dwellers represented 41.3% of the cohort, whereas 42.4% and 16.3% resided partially and fully in a NH, respectively. Annual prevalence of use was 57.1% for cognitive enhancers, 56.4% for antidepressants, 34.0% for antipsychotics, and 8.8% for mood stabilizers. Cognitive enhancer use was significantly lower in those with any NH stay (partial NH vs no NH, adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 0.84, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-0.86; full NH vs no NH, APR = 0.83, 99% CI = 0.81-0.85). In contrast, those with any NH residence had significantly higher use of all psychopharmacological medication classes than community-dwellers. More than half the cohort had consistent medication regimens during 2008 (64.8%). The number of psychopharmacological medication classes used increased with increasing NH stay duration. CONCLUSION: This population-based study documents significant differences in medication use for managing dementia between care settings and substantial use of psychopharmacological medications in older adults with dementia.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2013; 61(5). DOI:10.1111/jgs.12210 · 4.22 Impact Factor