Article

On the relationship between temperament, metacognition, and anxiety: independent and mediated effects.

a Faculty of Psychology , University of Warsaw , ul. Stawki 5/7, 00-183 , Warsaw , Poland.
Anxiety, stress, and coping (Impact Factor: 1.55). 10/2011; 25(6):697-709. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2011.630071
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Abstract The present study examined the relations between temperamental traits distinguished in regulative theory of temperament, state anxiety, and metacognition as postulated in self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) theory of emotional disorder. Data analysis (n=315) consisted of independent and mediated effect analyses. Of the six traits, briskness, emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated significantly with both state anxiety and metacognitions (emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated positively, and briskness - negatively). These traits were predictors of state anxiety. Metacognition predicted state anxiety and relationships were independent of temperament. A mediating effect of metacognition was confirmed for the general index as well as negative and positive belief subscales. The findings support the metacognitive model of psychopathology and suggest that temperament is associated with metacognitions implicated in psychopathology and may have both direct and metacognitively mediated effects on anxiety.

5 Followers
 · 
309 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Metacognition is linked to the etiology and maintenance of negative emotions and psychological disorder in the Self-Regulatory Executive Function Model (S-REF; Wells and Matthews, 1994). Although there is significant evidence supporting the model, little is currently known about the situational factors for developing dysfunctional metacognitions. The current study explored the hypothesis that early aversive experiences might be important and also tested if metacognitions could mediate the relationship between such experiences and psychological symptoms. Design and Methods: Three hundred and fifty non-clinical adults completed a retrospective early trauma measure, as well as measures of current metacognitive beliefs, negative affect and anxious attachment. Results: Early emotional abuse positively and significantly correlated with several metacognitive belief dimensions but other forms of early trauma did not. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and negative affect. Anxious attachment was also positively and significantly associated with metacognitive beliefs and specific relationships remained after controlling for early emotional abuse and current negative affect. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with the ideas that: 1) early negative experiences, and emotional abuse in particular, could be a factor in the formation of problematic metacognitions and 2) these metacognitions may be important in determining the effects of abuse on subsequent psychological symptoms.
    Anxiety Stress & Coping 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/10615806.2015.1009832 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are frequently reported in the general population. Healthy individuals reporting PLEs have a similar personality profile to people with psychosis, however, the mechanisms by which personality influences PLEs are unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that cognitive biases mediate the relationship between two dimensions of personality (i.e. temperament and character) and positive and negative PLEs. Two hundred and ninety-six healthy participants were assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scale, the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Davos Scale for Cognitive Biases. We performed multiple stepwise regression analysis and mediation analysis according to Baron and Kenny’s method. Harm-avoidance and self-directedness personality dimensions significantly predicted PLEs frequency. High self-transcendence and lower cooperativeness predicted positive PLEs. Cognitive biases were significant mediators in relationships between temperament, character and both positive and negative PLEs. In particular, attention to threat and external attribution biases fully mediate the relationship between cooperativeness and positive PLEs. Other cognitive biases partially mediate the relationships between self-transcendence and positive PLEs and self-directedness, harm-avoidance and negative PLEs. Our study tentatively suggests that personality may influence PLEs via the cognitive bias pathway.
    Psychiatry Research 01/2015; 225:50-57. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.10.006 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders (n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2014; 36(2):246-254. DOI:10.1007/s10862-013-9392-z · 1.55 Impact Factor