On the relationship between temperament, metacognition, and anxiety: independent and mediated effects.
ABSTRACT Abstract The present study examined the relations between temperamental traits distinguished in regulative theory of temperament, state anxiety, and metacognition as postulated in self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) theory of emotional disorder. Data analysis (n=315) consisted of independent and mediated effect analyses. Of the six traits, briskness, emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated significantly with both state anxiety and metacognitions (emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated positively, and briskness - negatively). These traits were predictors of state anxiety. Metacognition predicted state anxiety and relationships were independent of temperament. A mediating effect of metacognition was confirmed for the general index as well as negative and positive belief subscales. The findings support the metacognitive model of psychopathology and suggest that temperament is associated with metacognitions implicated in psychopathology and may have both direct and metacognitively mediated effects on anxiety.
SourceAvailable from: Henning Tiemeier[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Temperament and psychopathology are intimately related; however, research on the prospective associations between positive emotionality, defined as a child's positive mood states and high engagement with the environment, and psychopathology is inconclusive. We examined the longitudinal relation between positive emotionality and internalizing problems in young children from the general population. Furthermore, we explored whether executive functioning mediates any observed association. Within a population-based Dutch birth cohort, we observed positive emotionality in 802 children using the laboratory temperament assessment battery at age 3 years. Child behavior checklist (CBCL) internalizing problems (consisting of Emotionally Reactive, Anxious/Depressed, and Withdrawn scales) were assessed at age 6 years. Parents rated their children's executive functioning at ages 4 years. Children with a lower positive emotionality at age 3 had a higher risk of withdrawn problems at age 6 years (OR = 1.20 per SD decrease in positive emotionality score, 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.42). This effect was not explained by preexisting internalizing problems. This association was partly mediated by more problems in the shifting domain of executive functioning (p < 0.001). We did not find any relation between positive emotionality and the CBCL emotionally reactive or anxious/depressed scales. Although the effect sizes were moderate, our results suggest that low levels of positive emotionality at preschool age can result in children's inflexibility and rigidity later in life. The inflexibility and rigidity are likely to affect the child's drive to engage with the environment, and thereby lead to withdrawn problems. Further research is needed to replicate these findings.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 04/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0542-y · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are frequently reported in the general population. Healthy individuals reporting PLEs have a similar personality profile to people with psychosis, however, the mechanisms by which personality influences PLEs are unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that cognitive biases mediate the relationship between two dimensions of personality (i.e. temperament and character) and positive and negative PLEs. Two hundred and ninety-six healthy participants were assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scale, the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Davos Scale for Cognitive Biases. We performed multiple stepwise regression analysis and mediation analysis according to Baron and Kenny’s method. Harm-avoidance and self-directedness personality dimensions significantly predicted PLEs frequency. High self-transcendence and lower cooperativeness predicted positive PLEs. Cognitive biases were significant mediators in relationships between temperament, character and both positive and negative PLEs. In particular, attention to threat and external attribution biases fully mediate the relationship between cooperativeness and positive PLEs. Other cognitive biases partially mediate the relationships between self-transcendence and positive PLEs and self-directedness, harm-avoidance and negative PLEs. Our study tentatively suggests that personality may influence PLEs via the cognitive bias pathway.Psychiatry Research 01/2015; 225:50-57. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.10.006 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders (n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2014; 36(2):246-254. DOI:10.1007/s10862-013-9392-z · 1.55 Impact Factor