On the relationship between temperament, metacognition, and anxiety: Independent and mediated effects
ABSTRACT Abstract The present study examined the relations between temperamental traits distinguished in regulative theory of temperament, state anxiety, and metacognition as postulated in self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) theory of emotional disorder. Data analysis (n=315) consisted of independent and mediated effect analyses. Of the six traits, briskness, emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated significantly with both state anxiety and metacognitions (emotional reactivity and perseveration correlated positively, and briskness - negatively). These traits were predictors of state anxiety. Metacognition predicted state anxiety and relationships were independent of temperament. A mediating effect of metacognition was confirmed for the general index as well as negative and positive belief subscales. The findings support the metacognitive model of psychopathology and suggest that temperament is associated with metacognitions implicated in psychopathology and may have both direct and metacognitively mediated effects on anxiety.
- SourceAvailable from: Małgorzata Dragan
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- "Interestingly, this trait appeared also in the three models identified for specific metacognitions (positive beliefs, cognitive self-consciousness, negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger), and additionally in the model identified for males, as an independent predictor of anxiety not related to metacognition. Given previous findings that this trait may act as protective factor against emotional disorders (Strelau and Zawadzki 2011; Dragan et al. 2012), further studies are called for to explore the association between this specific trait and anxiety, with reference to other possibly intervening variables not included in our study. For example, Hong (2013) has shown that several specific socialcognitive vulnerability factors such as ruminative style or anxiety sensitivity fully mediate between various dispositional traits and psychopathological symptoms. "
ABSTRACT: The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders (n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2014; 36(2):246-254. DOI:10.1007/s10862-013-9392-z · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The purpose of this study was to perform a comparative investigation of metacognitive beliefs regarding pathological worry in patients with unipolar and bipolar depressive disorder. Methods: Those subjects with acute depressive episodes among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar) or bipolar disorder on the basis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (unipolar n = 51, bipolar n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 60), were included in the study. Participants were administered the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) in order to determine metacognitive beliefs. The relationship between metacognitive beliefs and anxiety severity, depression severity and self-esteem in the unipolar and bipolar patients groups was then examined. Results: Scores for negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger and for beliefs about the need to control thoughts were higher in both the unipolar and bipolar depression groups than in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Lack of cognitive confidence scores were higher in the bipolar group than in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Metacognitive beliefs (to a greater extent in parameters in the bipolar group) were correlated with anxiety level, depression level and self-esteem in both patient groups. Conclusion: In addition to metacognitive beliefs known to be associated with ruminations in unipolar and bipolar depression, metacognitive beliefs can also be seen in association with worry. Worry-associated metacognitive beliefs should be the subject of focus in the identification of metacognitive beliefs in depression patients and in metacognitive therapy in these patients.Nordic journal of psychiatry 08/2013; 68(4). DOI:10.3109/08039488.2013.814710 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temperament and psychopathology are intimately related; however, research on the prospective associations between positive emotionality, defined as a child's positive mood states and high engagement with the environment, and psychopathology is inconclusive. We examined the longitudinal relation between positive emotionality and internalizing problems in young children from the general population. Furthermore, we explored whether executive functioning mediates any observed association. Within a population-based Dutch birth cohort, we observed positive emotionality in 802 children using the laboratory temperament assessment battery at age 3 years. Child behavior checklist (CBCL) internalizing problems (consisting of Emotionally Reactive, Anxious/Depressed, and Withdrawn scales) were assessed at age 6 years. Parents rated their children's executive functioning at ages 4 years. Children with a lower positive emotionality at age 3 had a higher risk of withdrawn problems at age 6 years (OR = 1.20 per SD decrease in positive emotionality score, 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.42). This effect was not explained by preexisting internalizing problems. This association was partly mediated by more problems in the shifting domain of executive functioning (p < 0.001). We did not find any relation between positive emotionality and the CBCL emotionally reactive or anxious/depressed scales. Although the effect sizes were moderate, our results suggest that low levels of positive emotionality at preschool age can result in children's inflexibility and rigidity later in life. The inflexibility and rigidity are likely to affect the child's drive to engage with the environment, and thereby lead to withdrawn problems. Further research is needed to replicate these findings.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 04/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0542-y · 3.55 Impact Factor