Molecular basis of virulence in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

INRA, UMR1253, Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Œuf, Rennes, France.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2011; 6(11):e27354. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027354
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.
We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases.
Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity.

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    ABSTRACT: Bovine mastitis is the primary disease of dairy cattle that has a great impact on the dairy industry. It is estimated that worldwide economic losses due to mastitis range between US$82 and US$131 per cow/year. A fast and efficient diagnosis of the disease remains a major bottleneck that directly influences the speed with which treatment decisions and management are undertaken. Microbiological culture remains the gold standard in the identification of bacteria that cause mastitis, but the method has inherent limitations, such as a delay in obtaining results and cost, and requires special care during the collection and processing of the sample. For this reason, multiple groups have devoted efforts to develop alternative methods that, preferably, can be easily accomplished in the field. The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction has enabled the emergence of major diagnostic methods used in clinical practice, such as immunoassays, which have significant advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity, specificity, and portability. Commercially, immunodiagnostics have been used in the detection of various diseases in cattle. However, in several cases, only a presumptive diagnosis can be made, which requires confirmation using culture-based methods. This review discusses the immunological-based assays developed since the 1990s for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, which is considered the primary pathogen of contagious bovine mastitis. Although no ideal antigens ensure the accurate performance of tests and the costs need to be reduced to allow for good market competitiveness, immunoassays, particularly lateral flow immunoassay and immunoagglutination, have emerged as promising tests to be used in the field.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 06/2014; 14(1):195. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S. aureus is a major aetiological agent of ruminant mastitis worldwide. The chronic nature of S. aureus mastitis makes it difficult to cure and prone to resurgence. In order to identify the bacterial factors involved in this chronicity, Newbould 305 (N305), a strain that can reproducibly induce mild and chronic mastitis in an experimental setting, was characterized in depth. We employed genomic and proteomic techniques combined with phenotype characterization, in order to comprehensively analyse N305. The results were compared with data obtained on S. aureus RF122, a strain representative of the major clone involved in severe bovine mastitis worldwide. Five mobile genetic elements were identified in the N305 genome as carrying virulence factors which correlated with phenotypic features such as cytotoxicity, mammary epithelial cell invasion or host-adaptation. In particular, the presence and characteristics of surface exposed proteins correlated well with the greater adhesion and internalization capacities of N305 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. N305 also displayed less diversity of toxin genes but secreted larger quantities of these toxins, associated with a higher cytotoxicity potential. Our data are consistent with the invasiveness and host-adaptation features which contribute to the chronicity of S. aureus mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, exoproteins and surface exposed proteins constitute good targets for further research to explore the underlying mechanisms related to mastitis chronicity.
    Veterinary research. 10/2014; 45(1):106.

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