Different HER2 Protein Expression Profiles Aid in the Histologic Differential Diagnosis Between Urothelial Carcinoma In Situ (CIS) and Non-CIS Conditions (Dysplasia and Reactive Atypia) of the Urinary Bladder Mucosa
ABSTRACT We evaluated HER2 expression profiles in 32 carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 31 non-CIS conditions (5 dysplasia and 26 reactive atypia) of the urinary bladder mucosa by applying breast cancer scoring rules. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue microarrays to assess HER2 gene amplification status. Our immunoprofiling data disclosed moderate to strong HER2 expression in CIS, including the basal layer of the urothelium, and absent to weak HER2 expression in non-CIS conditions. From the histologic differential diagnostic standpoint, immunostaining for HER2 protein represents a useful adjunct to aid in the delineation between CIS and non-CIS conditions of the bladder mucosa. Pathogenically, aberrant HER2 protein expression in CIS seems to be more commonly associated with polysomy than with gene amplification. From a therapeutic viewpoint, prospective clinical studies should investigate the potential benefit of HER2-targeted therapies in CIS, particularly in cases unresponsive to conventional therapeutic regimens.
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- "Likewise EGFR, HER2 overexpression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in bladder cancer  but it is variable, ranging from 8 to 70% . However, HER2 overexpression demonstrated to be more frequent in CIS stage  and in lymph node metastases than in primary site . The HER2 expression variability can be conditioned by the presence of mutations in extracellular and tyrosine kinases domains of HER2 that induce receptor overexpression . "
ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, presents the highest recurrence rate among solid tumors and is the second leading cause of death in genitourinary cancers. Despite recent advances in understanding of pathophysiology of the disease, the management of bladder cancer patients remains a clinically challenging problem. Particularly, bladder tumors invading the muscularis propria and disseminated disease are often not responsive to currently available therapeutic approaches, which include surgery and conventional chemotherapy. Antibody-based therapeutic strategies have become an established treatment option for over a decade in several types of cancer. However, bladder cancer has remained mostly an "orphan disease" regarding the introduction of these novel therapeutics, which has been translated in few improvements in patients overall survival. In order to shift this paradigm, several clinical studies involving antibody-based therapeutic strategies targeting the most prominent bladder cancer-related biomolecular pathways and immunological mediators are ongoing. This systematic review explores antibody-based therapeutics for bladder cancer undergoing clinical trial and discusses the future perspectives in this field, envisaging the development of more effective guided therapeutics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Controlled Release 09/2015; 214:40–61. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.07.002 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed c-MET expression and oncogene amplification in a cohort enrolling 92 surgically treated penile squamous cell carcinomas (PSCCs). A tissue microarray was constructed for c-MET immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic silver in situ hybridization (SISH). Two independent pathologists evaluated IHC by employing the breast cancer scoring rules, and scored the presence of MET oncogene amplification and/or polysomy-7. Eighty study cases (87%) showed c-MET expression. No study case had MET oncogene amplification, but 42 patients (45.7%) had polysomy-7. Polysomy-7 showed a significant positive correlation with c-MET expression (ρ=0.323, p=0.002). Neither c-MET expression nor polysomy-7 was associated with histopathologic parameters or with cancer-specific survival (median post-surgical follow-up 32 months). Our data suggest that the majority of PSCCs exhibit c-MET expression which is not associated with oncogene amplification, but might be attributable to polysomy-7. Further studies should investigate the expression and activation of downstream molecules functionally involved in c-MET pathway signaling, and clarify the so far unresolved role of c-MET inhibitors as potential targeted therapies in PSCCs with metastatic dissemination.Pathology - Research and Practice 03/2013; 209(4). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2013.02.002 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although differentiating reactive urothelial atypia from urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) relies primarily on histologic evaluation, confirming the morphologic impression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been increasingly used in routine clinical practice. The aims of this study are to confirm the utility of commonly used markers (CK20, P53) and to test the performance of CK5/6, CD138, and Her2/Neu in the diagnosis of CIS. Using a tissue microarray comprising 52 cases of normal/reactive urothelium and 45 cases of CIS, the IHC evaluation of 5 markers was undertaken. Although the individual specificity of CK20, P53, and Her2/Neu was high (94%, 90%, and 93%, respectively), their sensitivity for CIS detection was lower, with the most sensitive marker being HER2/Neu (63%). Whereas 78% of CIS shows positivity of at least 2 of those 3 markers, only 1 case of reactive urothelium shows positivity for 2 of those 3 markers. The discriminatory performance of CK5/6 and CD138 was poor. In conclusion, HER2/Neu can be added to a panel of CK20 and P53 to help differentiate reactive atypia from CIS in difficult cases. Positive staining for at least 2 of the 3 antibodies (CK20, P53, and HER2/Neu) is strongly associated with CIS. However, the histologic findings should be a primary determinant in the diagnosis of flat urothelial lesions, with IHC playing a supportive confirmatory role.Annals of diagnostic pathology 02/2014; 18(1):27-32. DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2013.10.006 · 1.12 Impact Factor