Effectiveness of amphotericin B alone or in combination with rifampicin or clarithromycin on the killing of Candida species biofilms was investigated in vitro. Amphotericin B was assayed at 0.005 to 10 mg/ml. Rifampin and clarithromycin were assayed at 10 mg/ml. We studied 7 Candida albicans, 3 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida glabrata, 3 Candida krusei and 2 Candida tropicalis strains. Biofilms were developed in 96-well, flat-bottomed microtiter plates for 48 hours. A synergistic effect between amphotericin B and clarithromycin was demonstrated against 66.6% of C. parapsilosis, 66.6% of C. glabrata, and 42.8% of C. albicans biofilms. A synergistic effect between amphotericin B and rifampin was demonstrated against 66.6% of C. parapsilosis, 42.8% of C. albicans, and 33.3% of C. glabrata biofilms. No synergistic effect was observed against C. krusei or C. tropicalis biofilms with any of the combinations. Rifampin or clarithromycin alone did not exert any effect on Candida species biofilms. Rifampin or clarithromycin combinations with amphotericin B might be of interest in the treatment of Candida biofilm-related infections.
" described synergistic effects between amphotericin B and clarithromycin , and between amphotericin B and rifampicin against Candida biofilms . Attending to such results , the association between the antibacterial agents tested could represent a very interesting therapeutical approach for the treatment of Candida biofilm - related infections ( Del Pozo et al . , 2011 ) . Gao et al . ( 2013 ) explored the antifungal activity of fluconazole in combination with doxycycline against C . albicans ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last 30 years the incidence of fungal infections has increased dramatically. While the antifungal therapeutic options available are somewhat reduced, most pathogenic microorganisms have an incredible capacity to mutate and acquire resistance. In addition, multiple drugs are often required concomitantly to manage clinically complex disorders. The combination of antibiotics or other compounds with antifungal drugs, simultaneously or sequentially, is commonly adopted in clinical practice, although without a full knowledge of the consequences. Thus, the role of combined therapy and the effect of antibiotics upon fungal growth promotion need to be critically evaluated and understood in order to avoid undesirable drug interactions. With this review we intend discuss the studies that report about antibiotics inhibiting fungal growth, as well as studies describing the synergistic effect of the combined therapy, i.e., associations between antibiotics or other compounds with antifungal drugs. Alternative therapeutic protocols for fungal disease could be designed, taking advantage of such drug combinations. Critical revision of previously published data is crucial in order to define future research strategies.
Frontiers in Microbiology 07/2015; 6:669. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00669 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida species have two distinct lifestyles: planktonic, and surface-attached communities called biofilms. Mature C. albicans biofilms show a complex three-dimensional architecture with extensive spatial heterogeneity, and consist of a dense network of yeast, hyphae, and pseudohyphae encased within a matrix of exopolymeric material. Several key processes are likely to play vital roles at the different stages of biofilm development, such as cell-substrate and cell-cell adherence, hyphal development, and quorum sensing. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy, since biofilm yeasts are more resistant to antifungals and environmental stress. Antifungal resistance is a multifactorial process that includes multidrug efflux pumps, target proteins of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Most studies agree in presenting azoles as agents with poor activity against Candida spp. biofilms. However, recent studies have demonstrated that echinocandins and amphotericin B exhibit remarkable activity against C. albicans and Candida non-albicans biofilms. The association of Candida species with biofilm formation increases the therapeutic complexity of foreign body-related yeast infections. The traditional approach to the management of these infections has been to explant the affected device. There is a strong medical but also economical motivation for the development of novel anti-fungal biofilm strategies due to the constantly increasing resistance of Candida biofilms to conventional antifungals, and the high mortality caused by related infections. A better description of the extent and role of yeast in biofilms may be critical for developing novel therapeutic strategies in the clinical setting.
The International journal of artificial organs 11/2012; 35(10). DOI:10.5301/ijao.5000170 · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections among immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of drug resistant C. albicans strains makes it important to identify new antifungal drug targets. Among potential targets are enzymes known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) that catalyze isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline. We are investigating a PPIase called Ess1, which is conserved in all major human pathogenic fungi. Previously, we reported that C. albicans Ess1 is essential for growth and morphogenetic switching. In the present study, we re-evaluated these findings using more rigorous genetic analyses, including the use of additional CaESS1 mutant alleles, distinct marker genes, and the engineering of suitably-matched isogenic control strains. The results confirm that CaEss1 is essential for growth in C. albicans, but show that reduction of CaESS1 gene dosage by half (δ/+) does not interfere with morphogenetic switching. However, further reduction of CaEss1 levels using a conditional allele does reduce morphogenetic switching. We also examine the role of the linker α-helix that distinguishes C. albicans Ess1 from the human Pin1 enzyme, and present results of a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. The latter analysis indicates that CaEss1 has a conserved role in regulation of RNA polymerase II function, and is required for efficient termination of small nucleolar RNAs and repression of cryptic transcription in C. albicans.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59094. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059094 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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