Article

Genotoxicity of inhaled nanosized TiO2 in mice

Nanosafety Research Center, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (Impact Factor: 4.44). 11/2011; 745(1-2):58-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.10.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than BAL cells in the earlier intratracheal study.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
152 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the influence of nano-TiO2 (1 mg L-1) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg L-1) bioconcentration and toxicity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during 7 days in vivo exposure. A multimarkers approach was applied in different organs: detoxification in liver; innate immunity and pro-inflammatory response and adaptive immunity in gills and spleen; genotoxicity in peripheral erythrocytes and muscle. Bioconcentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in presence of nano-TiO2 was investigated in liver, skin and muscle as well as interaction between nanoTiO(2) and organic pollutants in artificial sea water (ASW). Nano-TiO2 negatively influenced immune response induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in spleen but not in gills and reduced the DNA damage induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in erythrocytes. nano-TiO2 did not interfere with 2,3,7,8-TCDD detoxification and bioconcentration according to the observed no interaction of the nano-TiO2 with organic pollutants in ASW.
    Environmental Pollution 01/2015; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.020 · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Concerns about the risk of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to human health and environment are gradually increasing due to their wide range of applications. In this study, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by TiO2 NPs (5 nm) in A549 cells were investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays revealed the time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of TiO2 NPs in a concentration range of 50 to 200 μg/mL. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) induction in DNA damage was observed by the comet assay in cells exposed to 50 to 200 μg/mL TiO2 NPs for 48 h. A significant (p < 0.05) induction in micronucleus formation determined by 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining was also observed at the above concentrations. Typical apoptotic morphological feature and apoptotic bodies in A549 cells induced by TiO2 NPs at the above concentrations were observed by scanning electron micrographs. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells treated with TiO2 NPs at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL showed a significant G2/M phase arrest and a significant increased proportion of apoptotic cells. TiO2 NPs also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by rhodamine 123 staining. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased significantly at the concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL TiO2 NPs for 48 h. Taken together, these findings suggest that TiO2 NPs can inhibit A549 cell proliferation, cause DNA damage, and induce apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data provide strong evidence that TiO2 NPs can induce cytotoxicity, significant DNA damage, and apoptosis of A549 cells, suggesting that exposure to TiO2 NPs could cause cell injury and be hazardous to health.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 10/2014; 22(7). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3717-7 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology offers enormous potential for technological progress. Fortunately, early and intensive efforts have been invested in investigating toxicology and safety aspects of this new technology. However, despite there being more than 6,000 publications on nanotoxicology, some key questions still have to be answered and paradigms need to be challenged. Here, we present a view on the field of nanotoxicology to stimulate the discussion on major knowledge gaps and the critical appraisal of concepts or dogma. First, in the ongoing debate as to whether nanoparticles may harbour a specific toxicity due to their size, we support the view that there is at present no evidence of 'nanospecific' mechanisms of action; no step-change in hazard was observed so far for particles below 100 nm in one dimension. Therefore, it seems unjustified to consider all consumer products containing nanoparticles a priori as hazardous. Second, there is no evidence so far that fundamentally different biokinetics of nanoparticles would trigger toxicity. However, data are sparse whether nanoparticles may accumulate to an extent high enough to cause chronic adverse effects. To facilitate hazard assessment, we propose to group nanomaterials into three categories according to the route of exposure and mode of action, respectively: Category 1 comprises nanomaterials for which toxicity is mediated by the specific chemical properties of its components, such as released ions or functional groups on the surface. Nanomaterials belonging to this category have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, depending on their chemical identity. Category 2 focuses on rigid biopersistent respirable fibrous nanomaterials with a specific geometry and high aspect ratio (so-called WHO fibres). For these fibres, hazard assessment can be based on the experiences with asbestos. Category 3 focuses on respirable granular biodurable particles (GBP) which, after inhalation, may cause inflammation and secondary mutagenicity that may finally lead to lung cancer. After intravenous, oral or dermal exposure, nanoscaled GBPs investigated apparently did not show 'nanospecific' effects so far. Hazard assessment of GBPs may be based on the knowledge available for granular particles. In conclusion, we believe the proposed categorization system will facilitate future hazard assessments.
    Archives of Toxicology 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1383-7 · 5.08 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
58 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014