Decreased gallbladder emptying in dogs with biliary sludge or gallbladder mucocele.
ABSTRACT Biliary sludge in dogs is dismissed commonly as an incidental finding. On the other hand, gallbladder mucocele is reported increasingly in dogs and can lead to biliary obstruction or gallbladder rupture. Cholestasis is suspected to play a role in development of sludge and mucoceles, though there are no data in dogs to support this. We investigated gallbladder emptying, a key factor in biliary flow, in dogs with mobile sludge, immobile sludge, or gallbladder mucocele and in healthy controls. Gallbladder ejection fraction estimated by ultrasonography was used as the index of gallbladder emptying. The ejection fraction at 60 min after eating was significantly decreased in all three abnormal groups. Moreover, all dogs with sludge or a mucocele had gallbladder distension. These changes were the greatest in the mucocele group. Thus, biliary stasis occurs not only in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but also in dogs with biliary sludge. Cholestasis may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of these diseases in dogs.
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To noninvasively assess the influence of ingestion of a standard meal on gallbladder volume (GBV) in healthy cats. Animals-10 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats (4 neutered females, 5 neutered males, and 1 sexually intact male). Procedures-Nonsedated cats were positioned in dorsal and left lateral recumbency to obtain ultrasonographic measurements of the gallbladder via the subcostal and right intercostal acoustic windows, respectively. Gallbladder volume was calculated from linear measurements by use of an ellipsoid formula (volume [mL] = length [mm] × height [mm] × width [mm] × 0.52). Measurements were recorded after food was withheld for 12 hours (0 minutes) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after cats were fed 50 g of a standard commercial diet (protein, 44.3%; fat, 30.3%; and carbohydrate, 15.6% [dry matter percentage]). Results-Agreement between gallbladder linear measurements or GBV obtained from the subcostal and right intercostal windows was good. Feeding resulted in linear decreases in gallbladder linear measurements and GBV. Via the subcostal and intercostal windows, mean ± SD GBV was 2.47 ± 1.16 mL and 2.36 ± 0.96 mL, respectively, at 0 minutes and 0.88 ± 0.13 mL and 0.94 ± 0.25 mL, respectively, at 120 minutes. Gallbladder width most closely reflected postprandial modification of GBV. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that ultrasonographic assessment (via the subcostal or right intercostal acoustic window) of postprandial changes in GBV can be used to evaluate gallbladder contractility in cats. These data may help identify cats with abnormal gallbladder emptying.American Journal of Veterinary Research 10/2012; 73(10):1583-8. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.10.1583 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM.The Veterinary Journal 10/2013; 199(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.10.019 · 2.17 Impact Factor