Effects of platelet-rich and -poor plasma on the reparative response of gingival fibroblasts
ABSTRACT Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to enhance wound repair, the cellular and molecular mechanisms stimulated by this agent are still not completely understood. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) supernatants on cell responses involved in gingival tissue repair.
We studied the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) to PRP and PPP fractions on: matrix contraction, cell migration, myofibroblastic differentiation, production of matrix components and proteolytic enzymes. PRP and PPP were obtained from donors using a commercial kit. Matrix contraction was evaluated by means of collagen lattices in the presence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and actin polymerization inhibitors. The production of matrix molecules and proteinases was assessed through Western-blot. RhoA activity was evaluated through a pull-down assay. Actin distribution and focal adhesions were assessed through immunofluorescence. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was quantified through ELISA.
Both PRP and PPP stimulated human gingival fibroblasts-populated collagen gel contraction and Ilomastat and cytochalasin D inhibited this response. PRP and PPP also stimulated MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 production, RhoA activation and actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration/invasion and myofibroblastic differentiation. TGF-β1 was found at significantly higher concentrations in PRP than in PPP.
Both PRP and PPP promote wound tissue remodeling and contraction through the stimulation of actin remodeling, the activity of MMPs, promotion of cell migration, and myofibroblastic differentiation. The similar biological responses induced by PRP and PPP suggest that both platelet-derived fractions may exert a positive effect on gingival repair.
- SourceAvailable from: Kwang-Hoe Chung
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- "Studies by Wang et al. and de Mos et al. have shown that PRP treatment increases cell proliferation, collagen production, and MMP expression in human tenocytes, which suggest that PRP might be a candidate as a future therapy for tendon regeneration [14, 15]. In human gingival fibroblasts, PRP stimulates membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT-MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) production, cell migration/invasion, and myofibroblastic differentiation, and has positive effects in gingival repair . In contrast, a recent study reported that PRP injections in chronic Achilles tendinopathy did not produce any significant improvement of symptoms . "
ABSTRACT: The underlying rationale of platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is that an injection of concentrated PRP at the site of injury may promote tissue repair via cytokine release from platelets. The molecular mechanisms of PRP therapy in the skin wound healing process are not well understood at present, and would benefit from clarification. PRP was stimulated with angonists for 5 min, and cytokine profile analysis was performed. To investigate the wound healing activity of PRP, cell proliferation and migration analyses were performed in skin cells. The effects of PRP were analyzed on the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -9, and the activation of transcription factors. Thrombin was found to be a strong stimulator of PRP activation to release growth factors and chemokines. PRP induced cell proliferation and migration in HUVECs, HaCaT cells, and HDFs, as well as MMP-1and MMP-9 expression in HaCaT cells, but PRP did not have a significant effect on the expression or activity of MMPs in HDFs. The transcription factors, including signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) were found to be phosphorylated following PRP treatment in HaCaT cells. In this study, we have identified the cytokine profile of activated PRP after agonist stimulation. We have shown that PRP plays an active role in promoting the proliferation and migration of skin cells via the regulation of MMPs, and this may be applicable to the future development of PRP therapeutics to enhance skin wound healing.The Korean journal of hematology 12/2011; 46(4):265-73. DOI:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.4.265
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine secreted predominantly by Th17 cells. Although IL-17 is primarily associated with the induction of tissue inflammation, the other biological functions of IL-17, including its wound-healing functions, have yet to be thoroughly explored. Fibroblast proliferation and migration play essential roles in periodontal wound-healing responses. In this study, we report that IL-17A can increase the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts but has no effect on PDL fibroblast proliferation. IL-17A-induced MMP-1 expression led to cell migration, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with IL-17 receptor neutralizing antibody and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for MMP-1. The IL-17A-induced cell migration was also attenuated by its tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. In addition, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (SB203580) inhibited IL-17A-induced increase of the migration and MMP-1 upregulation of PDL fibroblasts. The involvement of p38 MAPK in IL-17A-induced MMP-1 expression and cell migration was further confirmed by transfection of p38α siRNA. A nuclear factor kappaB ((NF-κB) inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) also suppressed the cell migration and MMP-1 expression enhanced by IL-17A. Moreover, transfection with p38α siRNA inhibited IL-17A-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as NF-κB binding activity. Our results suggest that IL-17A enhances the migration of PDL fibroblasts by increasing MMP-1 expression through the IL-17 receptor, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signal transduction pathways. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2013; 229(3). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24444 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aging may negatively affect gingival wound-healing. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The present study examined the cellular responses associated with gingival wound-healing in aging. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were obtained from healthy young and aged donors for the analysis of cell proliferation, cell invasion, myofibroblastic differentiation, and collagen gel remodeling. Serum from young and old rats was used to stimulate cell migration. Gingival repair was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a p value of .05. Fibroblasts from aged donors showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation, migration, Rac activation, and collagen remodeling when compared with young fibroblasts. Serum from young rats induced higher cell migration when compared with serum from old rats. After TGF-beta1 stimulation, both young and old fibroblasts demonstrated increased levels of alpha-SMA. However, alpha-SMA was incorporated into actin stress fibers in young but not in old fibroblasts. After 7 days of repair, a significant delay in gingival wound-healing was observed in old rats. The present study suggests that cell migration, myofibroblastic differentiation, collagen gel remodeling, and proliferation are decreased in aged fibroblasts. In addition, altered cell migration in wound-healing may be attributable not only to cellular defects but also to changes in serum factors associated with the senescence process.Journal of dental research 04/2014; DOI:10.1177/0022034514533126 · 4.14 Impact Factor