Biomechanical evaluation of a microstructured zirconia implant by a removal torque comparison with a standard Ti-SLA implant

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
Clinical Oral Implants Research (Impact Factor: 3.89). 11/2011; 23(10):1210-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02291.x
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical bone tissue response to novel microstructured zirconia implants in comparison to sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implants through the analysis of removal torque (RTQ) measurements.
Ti-SLA implants with a sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched surface were compared with zirconia implants with an acid-etched surface. All implants had the same shape, a diameter of 4.1 mm and a length of 10 mm. A total of 136 implants were placed in the maxillae of 17 miniature pigs. Six animals were sacrificed after both 4 and 8 weeks and five animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks, thus providing a total of 102 implants for RTQ testing (34 implants were reserved for future histological analysis). The RTQ analysis was successfully performed, using a mixed model regression with P-values calculated using the nonparametric Brunner-Langer method, on 100 of the 102 implants, two were excluded from the analysis.
The adjusted mean RTQ values for Ti-SLA implants were 131 Ncm (95%CI: 107-155) at 4 weeks, 128 Ncm (108-148) Ncm at 8 weeks, and 180 Ncm (153-207 Ncm) at 12 weeks of healing, whereas RTQ values for the zirconia implants were 110 Ncm (86-134), 97 Ncm (76-118) and 147 Ncm (121-174) at the corresponding time intervals. A comparison of the implant materials resulted in P-values of P = 0.114 at 4 weeks, P = 0.034 at 8 weeks and P = 0.105 at 12 weeks (significance set at P < 0.05).
Within the limits of the present study, it could be confirmed that the biomechanical bone-tissue response of the investigated zirconia implants is non-inferior to that of the well-documented, roughened titanium surface, at each time point, within the set tolerance. There were no statistically significant differences between the two materials after a healing period of 4 and 12 weeks. The RTQ values of both implant types increased significantly from the 8-week to the 12-week time point.

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