Nonfinancial barriers and access to care for U.S. adults.
ABSTRACT To identify prevalences and predictors of nonfinancial barriers that lead to unmet need or delayed care among U.S. adults.
2007 Health Tracking Household Survey.
Reasons for unmet need or delayed care in the previous 12 months were assigned to one of five dimensions in the Penchansky and Thomas model of access to care. Prevalences of barriers in each nonfinancial dimension were estimated for all adults and for adults with affordability barriers. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between individual, household, and insurance characteristics and barriers in each access dimension.
Eighteen percent of U.S. adults experienced affordability barriers and 21 percent experienced nonfinancial barriers that led to unmet need or delayed care. Two-thirds of adults with affordability barriers also reported nonfinancial barriers. Young adults, women, individuals with lower incomes, parents, and persons with at least one chronic illness had higher adjusted prevalences of nonfinancial barriers.
Nonfinancial barriers are common reasons for unmet need or delayed care among U.S. adults and frequently coincide with affordability barriers. Failure to address nonfinancial barriers may limit the impact of policies that seek to expand access by improving the affordability of health care.
SourceAvailable from: Faith G Davis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney's index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (-0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p = 0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR = 1.59, p = 0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR = 1.32, p = 0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival.Frontiers in Public Health 01/2015; 3:8. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2015.00008
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ABSTRACT: Home delivery in unhygienic environments is common among Afghan women; only one third of births are delivered at health facilities. Institutional delivery is central to reducing maternal mortality. The factors associated with place of delivery among women in Afghanistan were examined using the Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 (AMS 2010), which was open to researchers. The AMS 2010 data were collected through an interviewer-led questionnaire from 18,250 women. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of non-institutional delivery were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When age at survey, education, parity, residency, antenatal care frequency, remoteness, wealth and regions were adjusted, the OR of non-institutional delivery was 8.37 (95% CI, 7.47–9.39) for no antenatal care relative to four or more antenatal care visits, 4.07 (95% CI, 3.45–4.80) for poorest household relative to women from richest household, 2.02 (95% CI, 1.43–2.84) for no education relative to higher education, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.52–2.09) for six or more deliveries relative to one delivery, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.36–1.67) for rural relative to urban residency. Since antenatal care was strongly associated with non-institutional delivery after adjustment of the other factors, antenatal care service may promote institutional deliveries, which can reduce maternal mortality ratio in Afghanistan.Nagoya journal of medical science 02/2015; 77(1-2):133-143. · 0.80 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Patient-Centered Appointment Scheduling Using Agent-Based Simulation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Enhanced access and continuity are key components of patient-centered care. Existing studies show that several interventions such as providing same day appointments, walk-in services, after-hours care, and group appointments, have been used to redesign the healthcare systems for improved access to primary care. However, an intervention focusing on a single component of care delivery (i.e. improving access to acute care) might have a negative impact other components of the system (i.e. reduced continuity of care for chronic patients). Therefore, primary care clinics should consider implementing multiple interventions tailored for their patient population needs. We collected rapid ethnography and observations to better understand clinic workflow and key constraints. We then developed an agent-based simulation model that includes all access modalities (appointments, walk-ins, and after-hours access), incorporate resources and key constraints and determine the best appointment scheduling method that improves access and continuity of care. This paper demonstrates the value of simulation models to test a variety of alternative strategies to improve access to care through scheduling.American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA); 11/2014