Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life in Iranian population.
ABSTRACT To investigate the association between Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Health related quality of life (QoL) in Iranian population.
We used data from the post-intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control. We recruited 9570 healthy adults, aged ≥ 19 years who were randomly selected using multistage random sampling method. World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) which contains 26 items was used to assess QoL. It assesses four domains of QoL; Physical health, Psychological health, Social relationship and Environmental issues. MetS was defined based on ATP III criteria.
The mean age of participants was 38.8±15.6 years (mean ± SD) and the prevalence of MetS was 22.5%. From all participant 18.2% were illiterate and 13.2% had university educational level. Two way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) test after adjusting age showed significant difference between women with and without Mets in regard to physical health and social relations domains, while none of QoL domains was different in men with Mets in comparison to men without it.
After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Other variety of health-related QoL assessment tools or definitions of MetS may show different relationship in the Iranian socio-cultural context.
- SourceAvailable from: Ahmad Esmaillzadeh[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of a comprehensive, integrated community-based lifestyle intervention on diet, physical activity and smoking in two Iranian communities. Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, a community trial was conducted in two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najaf-Abad) and a control area (Arak). Lifestyle interventions targeted the urban and rural populations in the intervention counties but were not implemented in Arak. In each community, a random sample of adults was selected yearly by multi-stage cluster sampling. Food consumption, physical exercise and smoking behaviours were quantified and scored as 1 (low-risk) or 0 (other) at baseline (year 2000) and annually for 4 years in the intervention areas and for 3 years in the control area. The scores for all behaviours were then added to derive an overall lifestyle score. After 4 years, changes from baseline in mean dietary score differed significantly between the intervention and control areas (+2.1 points versus -1.2 points, respectively; P < 0.01), as did the change in the percentage of individuals following a healthy diet (+14.9% versus -2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Daily smoking had decreased by 0.9% in the intervention areas and by 2.6% in the control area at the end of the third year, but the difference was not significant. Analysis by gender revealed a significant decreasing trend in smoking among men (P < 0.05) but not among women. Energy expenditure for total daily physical activities showed a decreasing trend in all areas, but the mean drop from baseline was significantly smaller in the intervention areas than in the control area (-68 metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes per week versus -114 MET minutes per week, respectively; P < 0.05). Leisure time devoted to physical activities showed an increasing trend in all areas. A significantly different change from baseline was found between the intervention areas and the control area in mean lifestyle score, even after controlling for age, sex and baseline values. The results suggest that community-based lifestyle intervention programmes can be effective in a developing country setting.Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 01/2009; 87(1):39-50. · 5.25 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome, a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, mild dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality. To assess the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality using recently proposed definitions and factor analysis. The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1209 Finnish men aged 42 to 60 years at baseline (1984-1989) who were initially without CVD, cancer, or diabetes. Follow-up continued through December 1998. Death due to coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and any cause among men with vs without the metabolic syndrome, using 4 definitions based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 8.8% to 14.3%, depending on the definition. There were 109 deaths during the approximately 11.4-year follow-up, of which 46 and 27 were due to CVD and CHD, respectively. Men with the metabolic syndrome as defined by the NCEP were 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.2) to 4.2 (95% CI, 1.6-10.8) times more likely and, as defined by the WHO, 2.9 (95% CI, 1.2-6.8) to 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-7.7) times more likely to die of CHD after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The metabolic syndrome as defined by the WHO was associated with 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-5.1) to 3.0 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) times higher CVD mortality and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) to 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.3) times higher all-cause mortality. The NCEP definition less consistently predicted CVD and all-cause mortality. Factor analysis using 13 variables associated with metabolic or cardiovascular risk yielded a metabolic syndrome factor that explained 18% of total variance. Men with loadings on the metabolic factor in the highest quarter were 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.9), 3.2 (95% CI, 1.7-5.8), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) times more likely to die of CHD, CVD, and any cause, respectively. Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality are increased in men with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of baseline CVD and diabetes. Early identification, treatment, and prevention of the metabolic syndrome present a major challenge for health care professionals facing an epidemic of overweight and sedentary lifestyle.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 288(21):2709-16. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Association of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) with Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is poorly documented. Our objective was to examine this association in an adult general population. In our cross-sectional community-based health survey in a semirural Finnish community, we invited all the adults (n = 760) of eight birth cohorts between 30 and 65 years, of which 480 (63%) participated. A 15-dimensional, standardized HRQoL instrument (15D) was used to measure the main outcome, and the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) 2005 criteria were used for MetS classification. The prevalence of MetS was 38%. MetS was significantly associated with impaired HRQoL (P < 0.001) measured by the 15D score. Participants with MetS were statistically significantly worse off than participants without MetS in the dimensions of mobility (P < 0.001), hearing (P = 0.021), breathing (P < 0.001), usual activities (P = 0.001), discomfort and symptoms (P = 0.002), vitality (P = 0.003), and sexual activity (P = 0.008). In a logistic regression analysis, a significant association persisted between MetS and impaired HRQoL (OR = 1.9). MetS seems to be associated closely with perceived HRQoL at community level. Therefore, reduction of risk factors of MetS may improve HRQoL.Quality of Life Research 09/2008; 17(8):1055-62. · 2.41 Impact Factor