Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for malignant tumors.
ABSTRACT Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy has become the gold standard for benign tumors. As more surgeons have expertise in open and laparoscopic pancreatic surgery, increasing numbers of benign-appearing tumors are being removed via minimally invasive techniques and found to have malignancy on final pathology. Because of our growing experience in laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy, we have begun removing preoperatively suspected malignancies in the distal pancreas with minimally invasive techniques.
All cases were collected prospectively in a database and analyzed retrospectively. All cases begun laparoscopically with the intention of performing the resection with minimally invasive techniques were considered even if the operation was ultimately converted to an open procedure.
A total of 12 cases have been attempted of which four required hand assistance and one required conversion to an open approach due to delayed bleeding from a calcified splenic artery that had been transected with laparoscopic GIA stapler device. In total, eight (67%) patients had malignant disease and four (33%) were found to have benign tumors. The median lymph node retrieval is 8 (range 3-16) with no positive margins. The morbidity rate is 17% with one reoperation (8%) and one mortality (8%) at 30 and 90 days.
The laparoscopic approach to malignant pancreatic tumors is feasible with similar morbidity and mortality rates to benign series. When tumors are next to the confluence of the splenic portal vein, a hand-assisted approach may be adviseable. Calcified splenic arteries should be sought on preoperative imaging and either transected in non-calcified segments or controlled via open techniques via the hand port.
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ABSTRACT: After the rapid acceptance of laparoscopy to manage multiple benign diseases arising from gastrointestinal districts, some surgeons started to treat malignancies by the same way. However, if the limits of laparoscopy for benign diseases are mainly represented by technical issues, oncologic outcomes remain the foundation of any procedures to cure malignancies. Cancerous patients represent an important group with peculiar aspects including reduced survival expectancy, worsened quality of life due to surgery itself and adjuvant therapies, and challenging psychological impact. All these issues could, potentially, receive a better management with a laparoscopic surgical approach. In order to confirm such aspects, similarly to testing the newest weapons (surgical or pharmacologic) against cancer, long-term follow-up is always recommendable to assess the real benefits in terms of overall survival, cancer-free survival and quality of life. Furthermore, it seems of crucial importance that surgeons will be correctly trained in specific oncologic principles of surgical oncology as well as in modern miniinvasive technologies. Therefore, laparoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies requires more caution and deep analysis of published evidences, as compared to those achieved for inflammatory bowel diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease or diverticular disease. This review tries to examine the evidence available to date for the use of laparoscopy and robotics in malignancies arising from the gastrointestinal district.World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(7):1777-1789. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic distal splenopancreatectomy (DSP) is an effective and safe surgical modality for treating benign and borderline distal pancreatic tumors, but rarely for pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to examine the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of laparoscopic versus laparotomic DSP in pancreatic body-tail cancer (PBTC) patients. Thirty-four PBTC patients were consecutively and retrospectively hospitalized for elective laparoscopic DSP (n = 11) or laparotomy (n = 23) between January 2007 and December 2011. The primary outcome measure was mean overall survival (OS). All patients underwent DSP via laparoscopy or laparotomy as scheduled and were followed-up for 12-72 months. The two groups showed statistically similar mean operative time (laparoscopy vs. laparotomy, 150 ± 54 vs. 160 ± 48 min), median volume of intraoperative bleeding (100 [50-400] vs. 150 [50-350] ml), and rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula (18.2 vs. 21.7 %). The laparoscopy group had a significantly shorter median duration of hospitalization (5 [3-12] vs. 8 [7-22] d, P < 0.05). All patients had a clear resection margin and showed statistically similar tumor size (2.8 ± 1.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.7 cm), number of lymph nodes dissected (14.8 ± 4.5 vs. 16.1 ± 5.7), and mean OS (42.0 ± 8.6 vs. 54.0 ± 5.8 mo, P > 0.05). Laparoscopic DSP is a feasible, effective, and safe alternative to laparotomy in carefully selected PBTC patients and is associated with a more rapid postoperative recovery.Surgical Endoscopy 04/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the first report on laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) appeared in the 1990s, the procedure has been performed increasingly frequently to treat both benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas. Many earlier publications have shown LDP to be a good alternative to open distal pancreatectomy for benign lesions, although this has never been studied in a prospective, randomized manner. The evidence for the use of LDP to treat adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is not as well established. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current evidence for LDP in cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We conducted a review of English language publications reporting LDP results between 1990 and 2013. All studies reporting results in patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. Thirty-nine publications were found and included in the results for a total of 309 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (potential double publications were not eliminated). Most LDP procedures are performed in selected cases and generally involve smaller tumors than open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) procedures. Some of the papers report unselected cases and include procedures on larger tumors. The number of lymph nodes harvested using LDP is comparable to the number obtained with ODP, as is the frequency of R0 resections. Current data suggest that similar short term oncological results can be obtained using LDP as those obtained using ODP.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 10/2014; 20(37):13402-13411.