Nutrition and pharmacology: General principles and implications for HIV

Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch, Center for Research for Mothers and Children, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 11/2011; 94(6):1697S-1702S. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.019109
Source: PubMed


Food and nutrition play an intimate and inextricable role in all aspects of drug metabolism, safety, and effectiveness. Antiretroviral therapies (ART) have assumed a preeminent position in the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV and its comorbidities. The interaction between food, nutrition, and ART has become an expanding area of interest both in terms of clinical standards of care and as a target for research. Since the original review of this topic by the WHO in 2005, much has been learned (8). This article contains a review of what is known about the general relationships between nutrition and pharmacology, as well as issues specific to ART, with particular attention to their use in low- and middle-resource settings. The importance of food and nutrition on the bioavailability of drugs and vice versa has been an area of historical interest. However, much has been learned about the importance of nutritional status on drug metabolism, distribution, and effectiveness. The impact of traditional therapies (herbal/botanical) is highlighted as an area of clinical concern and one in need of further research. Additional attention is focused on the impact of individual micronutrients on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Finally, attention is given to the nutritional implications of the metabolic consequences of ART, which include the potential impact of "colliding epidemics" of infection (eg, HIV, tuberculosis) and noncommunicable diseases. Much has been learned, but much remains to be accomplished to ensure the effective integration of nutritional considerations into the effective and safe use of ART.

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    ABSTRACT: The HIV pandemic continues to place an unbearable burden on the international community, with disease prevalence remaining highest in resource-limited settings in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. HIV is most often imposed on conditions of food insecurity and consequent malnutrition, poor sanitation, and chronic exposure to a myriad of infectious (eg, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal) and noncommunicable (eg, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular) diseases. Women and children continue to bear the greatest burden. Two essential tenets underpin our approach to HIV: 1) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are essential to prolong lives and to halt the spread of HIV and AIDS and 2) food and sound nutrition are essential to human health. The challenge is to apply sound principles of clinical care and nutrition science to the safe and efficacious implementation of ARVs and for long-term care for people living with HIV and AIDS. The WHO has played a leading role in developing guidelines to support this goal with the generation of general recommendations regarding nutritional needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and specific guidelines for the nutritional care of HIV-infected infants and children (<14 y of age). These proceedings represent a summary of the work accomplished at a workshop sponsored by the NIH to review the existing evidence to support changes in the recommendations regarding nutrient requirements for people living with HIV and AIDS; to support development of new WHO guidelines for adolescents and adults, including for pregnant and lactating women; and to identify a research agenda to address outstanding knowledge gaps.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2011; 94(6):1667S-1676S. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.019711 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports 08/2012; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11904-012-0135-7 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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