Direct delivery of low-dose 7-nitroindazole into the bronchial artery attenuates pulmonary pathophysiology after smoke inhalation and burn injury in an ovine model.
ABSTRACT Bronchial circulation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury. A 10-fold increase in bronchial blood flow is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) following smoke inhalation and cutaneous burn. Because an increased release of neuropeptides from the airway has been implicated in smoke inhalation injury, we hypothesized that direct delivery into the bronchial artery of low-dose 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a specific neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, would attenuate smoke/burn-induced acute lung injury. Eighteen adult female sheep were instrumented for chronic hemodynamic monitoring 5 to 7 days before the injury. The bronchial artery was cannulated via intercostal thoracotomy, while blood flow was preserved. Acute lung injury was induced by 40% total body surface area third-degree cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40°C) under deep anesthesia. Following injury, animals (35.4 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into three groups: (a) 7-NI group: 1 h after injury, 7-NI (0.01 mg · kg · h, 2 mL · h) was continuously infused into the bronchial artery, n = 6; (b) control group: 1 h after injury, same amount of saline was injected into the bronchial artery, n = 6; (c) sham group: no injury, no treatment, same operation and anesthesia, n = 6. After injury, all animals were ventilated and fluid resuscitated according to an established protocol. The experiment was conducted for 24 h. Injury induced severe pulmonary dysfunction, which was associated with increases in lung edema formation, airway obstruction, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite. 7-Nitroindazole injection into the bronchial artery reduced the degree of lung edema formation and improved pulmonary gas exchange. The increase in malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite in lung tissue was attenuated by treatment. Our data strongly suggest that local airway production of NO contributes to pulmonary dysfunction following smoke inhalation and burn injury. Most mechanisms that drive this pathophysiology reside in the airway.
Article: What's new in Shock, December 2011?Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 12/2011; 36(6):529-31. DOI:10.1097/SHK.0b013e318239235a · 2.73 Impact Factor
- Hematology Research and Reviews 05/2012; 3:15-6. DOI:10.2147/JBM.S31988
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ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is well known to be an enzyme that repairs damaged DNA and also induces cell death when overactivated. It has been reported that PARP plays a significant role in burn and smoke inhalation injury, and the pathophysiology is thought to be localized in the airway during early stages of activation. Therefore, we hypothesized that local inhibition of PARP in the airway by direct delivery of low dose PJ-34 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor] into the bronchial artery would attenuate burn and smoke-induced acute lung injury. The bronchial artery in sheep was cannulated in preparation for surgery. After a 5-7 day recovery period, sheep were administered a burn and inhalation injury. Adult female sheep (n=19) were divided into four groups following the injury: (1) PJ-34 group A: 1h post-injury, PJ-34 (0.003mg/kg/h, 2mL/h) was continuously injected into the bronchial artery, n=5; (2) PJ-34 group B: 1h post-injury, PJ-34 (0.03mg/kg/h, 2mL/h) was continuously injected into bronchial artery, n=4; (3) Control group: 1h post-injury, an equivalent amount of saline was injected into the bronchial artery, n=5; (4) Sham group: no injury, no treatment, same operation and anesthesia, n=5. After injury, all animals were placed on a ventilator and fluid resuscitated equally. Pulmonary function as evaluated by measurement of blood gas analysis, pulmonary mechanics, and pulmonary transvascular fluid flux was severely deteriorated in the control group. However, the above changes were markedly attenuated by PJ-34 infusion into the bronchial artery (P/F ratio at 24h: PJ-34 group A 398±40*, PJ-34 group B 438±41*†‡, Control 365±58*, Sham 547±47; * vs. sham [p<0.05], † vs. control [p<0.05], ‡ vs. PJ-34 group A [p<0.05]). Our data strongly suggest that local airway production of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase contributes to pulmonary dysfunction following smoke inhalation and burn.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 09/2012; 38(8). DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2012.08.021 · 1.84 Impact Factor