Antidepressant-like effect of sildenafil through oxytocin-dependent cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Oxytocin (OT) levels in plasma increase during sexual response and are significantly lower in patients with depression. A drug for the treatment of sexual dysfunction, sildenafil, enhances the electrically evoked release of OT from the posterior pituitary. In this study, we showed that sildenafil had an antidepressant-like effect through activation of an OT signaling pathway. Application of sildenafil reduced depression-related behavior in male mice. The antidepressant-like effect was blocked by an OT receptor (OTR) antagonist and was absent in OTR knockout (KO) mice. Sildenafil increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus. The OTR antagonist inhibited sildenafil-induced CREB phosphorylation and sildenafil had no effect on CREB phosphorylation in OTR KO mice. These results suggest sildenafil to have an antidepressant-like effect through the activation of OT signaling and to be a promising drug for the treatment of depression.
SourceAvailable from: Hymie Anisman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depression is accompanied by an array of neurobiological variations, including altered HPA axis activity, monoamine, growth factor and inflammatory immune functioning. In addition, a recent perspective has entertained the possible role for oxytocin in depressive disorders. Given the involvement of oxytocin in prosocial behaviors such as attachment, affiliation, trust, and social support seeking, it is not surprising this neuropeptide might be involved in the development or maintenance of depressive disorders. This view is supported by evidence that oxytocin interacts with various neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes that have previously been implicated in depression. Thus, it might be profitable to consider the contribution of oxytocin in the context of several neurobiological changes provoked by stressors. The current review examines the relation between oxytocin and depression with a specific focus on the interactions between the oxytocinergic system and stressor-provoked biological and psychosocial responses. The possibility is also considered that oxytocin might increase the salience of social cues, such that positive or negative experiences result in exaggerated responses that may influence affective states.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 09/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.07.005 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 or 5 (PDE4 or PDE5) increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), respectively, which activates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/neuropeptide VGF (non-acryonimic) signaling and produces antidepressant-like effects on behavior. However, causal links among these actions have not been established. In the present study, mice were evaluated for the effects of etazolate and sildenafil, the inhibitor of PDE4 or PDE5, respectively, on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in the forced-swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G (PKG) via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions. The levels of cAMP, cGMP and expression of pCREB, CREB, BDNF and VGF in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined. The results showed that etazolate at 5.0 mg/kg or sildenafil at 30 mg/kg significantly reversed CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior; the effects were paralleled with the increased levels of cAMP/pCREB/BDNF/VGF or cGMP/pCREB/BDNF/VGF signaling, respectively. These effects were completely abolished following inhibition of PKA or PKG, respectively. The results suggest that inhibition of PDE4 by etazolate or PDE5 by sildenafil produced antidepressant-like effects in CUMS-treated animals via cAMP or cGMP signaling, which shares the common downstream signal pathway of CREB/BDNF/VGF.Metabolic Brain Disease 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11011-014-9533-4 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress occurs in everyday life, but the relationship between stress and the onset or development of depression/anxiety remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the impairment of antioxidant defense and the neuronal cell death are important in the process of emotional disorders. Chronic stress impairs the homeostasis of antioxidants/oxidation, which results in the aberrant stimulation of the cell cycle proteins where cGMP-PKG signaling is thought to have an inhibitory role. Phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) is linked to cGMP-PKG signaling and highly expressed in the limbic brain regions including hippocampus and amygdala, which may play important roles in the treatment of depression and anxiety. To address the possible effects of PDE2 inhibitors on depression-/anxiety-like behaviors and the underlying mechanisms, Bay 60-7550 (0.75, 1.5 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30min before chronic stress. The results suggested that Bay 60-7550 not only restored the behavioral changes but also regulated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels differentially in hippocampus and amygdala, which were increased in the hippocampus while decreased in the amygdala. It was also significant that Bay 60-7550 regulated the abnormalities of pro- and anti-apoptotic components, such as Bax, Caspase 3 and Bcl-2, and the indicator of PKG signaling characterized by pVASP(ser239), in these two brain regions. The results suggested that Bay 60-7550 is able to alleviate oxidative stress and mediate part of the apoptotic machinery in neuronal cells possibly through SOD-cGMP/PKG-anti-apoptosis signaling and that inhibition of PDE2 may represent a novel therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety.Behavioural brain research 03/2014; 268. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.042 · 3.39 Impact Factor