[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the rate of progression of carotid atherosclerosis in persons with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and undiagnosed and diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) is an observational cohort study in which 1192 men and women were examined at a 5-year interval. Participants of 3 ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, African American, and Hispanic) were selected from the general population to represent a range of glucose tolerance. Baseline and follow-up ultrasound studies were obtained to estimate progression of common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intimal-medial thickness (IMT). Baseline glucose tolerance status was defined by an oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria. In persons with normal glucose tolerance, progression of CCA IMT was 3.8 microm/y, and ICA IMT, 17.7 microm/y. In both CCA and ICA, progression of IMT, unadjusted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, was approximately twice the rate in persons with diabetes than in those with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. Adjustment for CVD risk factors attenuated these differences somewhat in both sites of the carotid artery. Persons with undiagnosed diabetes had a greater ICA IMT progression rate than did persons with diagnosed diabetes (33.9 microm/y vs 26.6 microm/y, P=NS). Progression rates did not differ between persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance.
Progression of carotid atherosclerosis is accelerated in persons with diabetes. Progression of ICA IMT is most pronounced in persons with undiagnosed diabetes. Early identification of diabetes and CVD risk factor control might reduce its atherosclerotic complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increased stiffness of the large central arteries in type 2 diabetic patients, and obesity is a risk factor. However, the effect of intentional weight loss on arterial stiffness is uncertain, and the purpose of the current study was to assess this effect.
Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) at baseline and at completion of a 1-year weight loss intervention. Metabolic control of type 2 diabetes was also appraised.
Mean weight loss at 1 year in 38 volunteers with type 2 diabetes was 7.8%. There were improvements in HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein). There was also a significant improvement in aPWV at completion of weight loss intervention, from 740 to 690 cm/s (P < 0.05).
Moderate weight loss improves arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care 10/2006; 29(10):2218-22. DOI:10.2337/dc06-0665 · 8.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adults with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk for stroke and myocardial infarction. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness are associated with these adverse outcomes. We compared carotid arteries in youth who were lean, were obese, or had T2DM.
Carotid ultrasound for cIMT measurement was performed, the Young elastic modulus and beta stiffness index were calculated, and anthropometric and laboratory values and blood pressure were measured in 182 lean, 136 obese, and 128 T2DM youth (aged 10 to 24 years). Mean differences were evaluated by ANOVA. Independent determinants of cIMT, Young elastic modulus, and beta stiffness index were determined with general linear models. Cardiovascular risk factors worsened from lean to obese to T2DM groups. T2DM subjects had greater cIMT than that in lean and obese subjects for the common carotid artery and bulb. For the internal carotid artery, cIMT measurements in both obese and T2DM groups were thicker than in the lean group. The carotid arteries were stiffer in obese and T2DM groups than in the lean group. Determinants of cIMT were group, group x age interaction, sex, and systolic blood pressure for the common carotid artery (r2=0.17); age, race, and systolic blood pressure for the bulb (r2=0.16); and age, race, sex, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol for the internal carotid artery (r2=0.21). Age, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were determinants of all measures of carotid stiffness, with sex adding to the Young elastic modulus (r2=0.23), and body mass index Z score, group, and group x age interaction contributing to the beta stiffness index (r2=0.31; all P<0.0001).
Youth with obesity and T2DM have abnormalities in carotid thickness and stiffness that are only partially explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These vascular changes should alert healthcare practitioners to address cardiovascular risk factors early to prevent an increase in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction.
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