Phylogenetic relationships amongst Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), and the description of six novel species from Australian elasmobranchs
ABSTRACT Six novel species of Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 are described using a whole evidence approach combining morphometric and molecular data, together with features of their biology. Elasmobranchs were collected in Australian waters, from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, off Lizard and Heron Islands; from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland; off Hobart, Tasmania; and from the Tamar River, Launceston, Tasmania. The novel species proposed here are: Chloromyxum hemiscyllii n.sp. from Hemiscyllium ocellatum; Chloromyxum kuhlii n.sp. from Neotrygon kuhlii; Chloromyxum lesteri n.sp. from Cephaloscyllium laticeps; Chloromyxum mingazzinii n.sp. from Pristiophorus nudipinnis; Chloromyxum myliobati n.sp. from Myliobatis australis; and Chloromyxum squali n.sp. from Squalus acanthias. A seventh species from Squalus acanthias is also reported but due to limited material is not formally described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Chloromyxum is polyphyletic, and species from elasmobranchs form a well-supported sister clade, with the type species Chloromyxum leydigi, to all other congeneric species clustering within the freshwater myxosporean clade. Morphological analysis showed that elasmobranch-infecting species are predominantly pyriform shaped, have clearly thickened spore apex and possess caudal filaments, compared to other Chloromyxum species which are generally spherical or subspherical, and lack caudal filaments. These morphological and phylogenetic data provide further support for the erection of new genera, but we conservatively consider the species described in this study and other elasmobranch-infecting Chloromyxum species as Chloromyxum sensu strictu, whilst the freshwater teleost infecting and amphibian infecting species we will assign as Chloromyxum sensu lato, until more comprehensive data are available.
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- "from elasmobranchs form a basal clade in the freshwater lineage (Fiala and Bartošová, 2010) assigned as the marine Chloromyxum clade (Jirků et al., 2011) or as the Chloromyxum s.s. clade (Gleeson and Adlard, 2012). Species of the genus Ceratomyxa from elasmobranchs represent one of the basal subgroups within the Ceratomyxa clade (unpublished data). "
ABSTRACT: Myxosporea (Myxozoa), a group of parasitic Cnidaria, use mostly bony fishes (Teleostei) as intermediate hosts; however, they can also parasitize other vertebrates such as cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Molecular data of myxosporeans from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) revealed these parasites to be one of the most basal representatives in the myxosporean phylogenetic tree, suggesting their ancient evolutionary history. A new myxosporean species, Bipteria vetusta n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of rabbit fish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes), and ssrDNA-based phylogeny revealed its basal position within the marine myxosporean lineage. Molecular dating based on ssrDNA analysis suggested the origin of a stem lineage leading to the marine myxosporean lineage at the time of the origin of Chondrichthyes in the Silurian era. The two common lineages of Myxozoa, Myxosporea and Malacosporea, were estimated to have split from their common ancestor in the Cambrian era. Tracing the history of evolution of the "vertebrate host type" character in the context of molecular dating showed that cartilaginous fish represented an ancestral state for all myxosporeans. Teleosts were very likely subsequently parasitized by myxozoans four times, independently. Myxosporean radiation and diversification appear to correlate with intermediate host evolution. The first intermediate hosts of myxosporeans were cartilaginous fish. When bony fish evolved and radiated, myxosporeans switched and adapted to bony fish, and subsequently greatly diversified in this new host niche. We believe that the present study is the first attempt at molecular dating of myxozoan evolution based on an old myxosporean species - a living myxosporean fossil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.International Journal for Parasitology 02/2015; 63(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.12.004 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A synopsis of the species of Chloromyxum Mingazinni, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Chloromyxidae) is presented, including 140 nominal species. For each species the most relevant morphological and morphometric characteristics are indicated. Included are data on the site of infection within the host, the original host and the host locality, plus a full bibliography of the original records for these species. A diagrammatic illustration of a spore of each species is also provided.Systematic Parasitology 11/2012; 83(3):203-25. DOI:10.1007/s11230-012-9380-9 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This collection is the result of research in numerous journals, books and online publications. It contains 837 citations of papers about living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), a list of 2012 new described species and parasites of elasmobranchs. Pollerspöck, J. (2013), Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) - Papers of the year 2012 -, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 01/2013; ISSN: 2195-6499