Phylogenetic relationships amongst Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), and the description of six novel species from Australian elasmobranchs
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.Parasitology International (Impact Factor: 1.86). 11/2011; 61(2):267-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2011.10.008
Six novel species of Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 are described using a whole evidence approach combining morphometric and molecular data, together with features of their biology. Elasmobranchs were collected in Australian waters, from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, off Lizard and Heron Islands; from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland; off Hobart, Tasmania; and from the Tamar River, Launceston, Tasmania. The novel species proposed here are: Chloromyxum hemiscyllii n.sp. from Hemiscyllium ocellatum; Chloromyxum kuhlii n.sp. from Neotrygon kuhlii; Chloromyxum lesteri n.sp. from Cephaloscyllium laticeps; Chloromyxum mingazzinii n.sp. from Pristiophorus nudipinnis; Chloromyxum myliobati n.sp. from Myliobatis australis; and Chloromyxum squali n.sp. from Squalus acanthias. A seventh species from Squalus acanthias is also reported but due to limited material is not formally described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Chloromyxum is polyphyletic, and species from elasmobranchs form a well-supported sister clade, with the type species Chloromyxum leydigi, to all other congeneric species clustering within the freshwater myxosporean clade. Morphological analysis showed that elasmobranch-infecting species are predominantly pyriform shaped, have clearly thickened spore apex and possess caudal filaments, compared to other Chloromyxum species which are generally spherical or subspherical, and lack caudal filaments. These morphological and phylogenetic data provide further support for the erection of new genera, but we conservatively consider the species described in this study and other elasmobranch-infecting Chloromyxum species as Chloromyxum sensu strictu, whilst the freshwater teleost infecting and amphibian infecting species we will assign as Chloromyxum sensu lato, until more comprehensive data are available.
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- "This is especially true for the genus Chloromyxum which has been noted as forming 3 separate lineages (Fiala and Dyková, 2004). We are assigning C. kurisi n. sp. to the genus Chloromyxum based on the combination of morphological characteristics and SSU rDNA that places it in within the Chloromyxum sensu lato based on the conservative approach recommended by others (Gleeson and Adlard, 2012; Jirků et al., 2011) who have noted that the freshwaterassociated Chloromyxum spp. will likely need to be reassigned to new genera, but that this should occur only after extensive sampling and phylogenetic and morphological analyses have been completed. "
ABSTRACT: Two myxozoan species were observed in the kidney of topsmelt, Atherinops affinis, during a survey of parasites of estuarine fishes in the Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, California. Fish collected on three dates in 2012 and 2013 were sectioned and examined histologically. Large extrasporogonic stages occurred in the renal interstitium of several fish from the first two collections (5/8, 11/20, respectively), and, in some fish, these replaced over 80% of the kidney. In addition, presporogonic and polysporogonic stages occurred in the lumen of the renal tubules, collecting and mesonephric ducts. The latter contained subspherical spores with up to 4 polar capsules, consistent with the genus Chloromyxum. For the third collection (15 May 2013, n=30), we portioned kidneys for examination by histology, wet mount, and DNA extraction for small subunit ribosomal gene sequencing. Histology showed the large extrasporogonic forms in the kidney interstitium of 3 fish, and 2 other fish with subspherical myxospores in the lumen of the renal tubules with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora. Chloromyxum-type myxospores were observed in the renal tubules of one fish by wet mount. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from this fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1769 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested this organism to be a novel species of Chloromyxum, most similar to Chloromyxum careni (84% similarity). In addition, subspherical myxospores with smooth valves and two spherical polar capsules consistent with the genus Sphaerospora were observed in wet mounts of 2 fish. Sequencing of the kidney tissue from 1 fish yielded a partial SSU rDNA sequence of 1937 bp. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests this organism to be a novel species of Sphaerospora most closely related to Sphaerospora epinepheli (93%). We conclude that these organisms represent novel species of the genera Chloromyxum and Sphaerospora based on host, location, and SSU rDNA sequence. We further conclude that the formation of large, histozoic extrasprogonic stages in the renal interstitium represent developmental stages of the Chloromyxum species for the following reasons: 1. Large extrasporogonic stages stages were only observed in fish with Chloromyxum-type spores developing within the renal tubules, 2. DNA sequence consistent with the Chloromyxum sp. was only detected in fish with the large extrasporogonic stages and 3.Sphaerospora species have extrasporogonic forms, but they are considerably smaller and are comprised of much fewer cells.Journal of Parasitology 07/2015; DOI:10.1645/15-726 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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- "from elasmobranchs form a basal clade in the freshwater lineage (Fiala and Bartošová, 2010) assigned as the marine Chloromyxum clade (Jirků et al., 2011) or as the Chloromyxum s.s. clade (Gleeson and Adlard, 2012). Species of the genus Ceratomyxa from elasmobranchs represent one of the basal subgroups within the Ceratomyxa clade (unpublished data). "
ABSTRACT: Myxosporea (Myxozoa), a group of parasitic Cnidaria, use mostly bony fishes (Teleostei) as intermediate hosts; however, they can also parasitize other vertebrates such as cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Molecular data of myxosporeans from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) revealed these parasites to be one of the most basal representatives in the myxosporean phylogenetic tree, suggesting their ancient evolutionary history. A new myxosporean species, Bipteria vetusta n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of rabbit fish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes), and ssrDNA-based phylogeny revealed its basal position within the marine myxosporean lineage. Molecular dating based on ssrDNA analysis suggested the origin of a stem lineage leading to the marine myxosporean lineage at the time of the origin of Chondrichthyes in the Silurian era. The two common lineages of Myxozoa, Myxosporea and Malacosporea, were estimated to have split from their common ancestor in the Cambrian era. Tracing the history of evolution of the "vertebrate host type" character in the context of molecular dating showed that cartilaginous fish represented an ancestral state for all myxosporeans. Teleosts were very likely subsequently parasitized by myxozoans four times, independently. Myxosporean radiation and diversification appear to correlate with intermediate host evolution. The first intermediate hosts of myxosporeans were cartilaginous fish. When bony fish evolved and radiated, myxosporeans switched and adapted to bony fish, and subsequently greatly diversified in this new host niche. We believe that the present study is the first attempt at molecular dating of myxozoan evolution based on an old myxosporean species - a living myxosporean fossil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.International Journal for Parasitology 02/2015; 63(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.12.004 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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- "Other studies, such as those of Eszterbauer , Milanin et al. , Gleeson and Adlard , Hartigan et al.  and Adriano et al. , have investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the species within a particular genus. These studies have demonstrated that many factors influence species clustering, such as the phylogenetic proximity of the host, tissue tropism, geographic distribution and morphology characteristics. "
ABSTRACT: The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73713. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073713 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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