Pharmacological considerations for the proper clinical use of aminoglycosides.
ABSTRACT Aminoglycosides constitute one of the oldest classes of antimicrobials. Despite their toxicity, mainly nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, aminoglycosides are valuable in current clinical practice, since they retain good activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Time-kill studies have shown a concentration-dependent and partially concentration-dependent bacterial killing against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Pharmacodynamic data gathered over recent decades show that the administration of aminoglycosides by an extended-interval dosing scheme takes advantage of the maximum potential of these agents, with the goal of achieving an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 100 mg · h/L over 24 hours and a peak plasma drug concentration (C(max)) to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of 8-10. Several clinical conditions that are common in seriously ill patients result in expansion of the extracellular space and can lead to a lower than desirable C(max) with the usual loading dose. Extended-interval dosing schemes allow adequate time to decrease bacterial adaptive resistance, a phenomenon characterized by slow concentration-independent killing. Adaptive resistance is minimized by the complete clearance of the drug before the subsequent dose, thus favouring the extended-interval dosing schemes. The efficacy of these schemes is also safeguarded by the observed post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect and post-antibiotic leukocyte enhancement, which inhibit bacterial regrowth when the serum aminoglycoside levels fall below the MIC of the pathogen. In everyday clinical practice, aminoglycosides are usually used empirically to treat severe sepsis and septic shock while awaiting the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing acknowledges the regimen-dependent nature of clinical breakpoints for aminoglycosides, i.e. of MIC values that classify bacterial isolates into sensitive or resistant, and bases its recommendations on extended-interval dosing. To a large extent, the lack of correlation between in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and clinical outcome is derived from the fact that the available clinical breakpoints for aminoglycosides are set based on mean pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in healthy volunteers and not sick patients. The nephrotoxicity associated with once- versus multiple-daily administration of aminoglycosides has been assessed in numerous prospective randomized trials and by several meta-analyses. The once-daily dosing schedule provides a longer time of administration until the threshold for nephrotoxicity is met. Regarding ototoxicity, no dosing regimen appears to be less ototoxic than another. Inactivation of aminoglycosides inside the bacterial pathogens occurs by diverse modifying enzymes and by operation of multidrug efflux systems, making both of these potential targets for inhibition. In summary, despite their use for several decades, the ideal method of administration and the preferred dosing schemes of aminoglycosides for most of their therapeutic indications need further refinement. Individualized pharmacodynamic monitoring has the potential of minimizing the toxicity and the clinical failures of these agents in critically ill patients.
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ABSTRACT: The emerging and sustained resistance to antibiotics and the poor pipeline of new antibacterials is creating a major health issue worldwide. Bacterial pathogens are increasingly becoming resistant even to the most recently approved antibiotics. Few antibiotics are being approved by regulatory organizations, which reflects both the difficulty of developing such agents and the fact that antibiotic discovery programs have been terminated at several major pharmaceutical companies in the past decade. As a result, the output of the drug pipelines is simply not well positioned to control the growing army of resistant pathogens, although academic institutions and smaller companies are trying to fill that gap. An emerging option to fight such pathogens is combination therapy. Combinations of two antibiotics or antibiotics with adjuvants are emerging as a promising therapeutic approach. This article provides and discusses clinical and scientific challenges to support the development of combination therapy to treat bacterial infections.Trends in Biotechnology 01/2008; 25(12):547-55. · 9.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influence of half-life on the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated during one dosing interval. Tobramycin half-lives of 0.5 to 2.5 h were simulated in an in vitro model, and the PAE was determined by an enzymatic inactivation method at different time points, i.e., when the tobramycin concentrations were 20x, 5x, and 1x the MIC. At the time point during therapy when the tobramycin concentrations had declined to 1x the MIC, at a tobramycin half-life of 0.5 h, the times of the PAEs were approximately 0.7 and 1.7 h for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively, and the PAE disappeared completely at half-lives corresponding to those found in humans (i.e., 2 to 2.5 h). The PAE itself cannot be fully explained by the presence of free intrabacterial tobramycin or the emergence of resistant subpopulations. The explanation for the disappearance of the PAE during the dosing interval may therefore be explained by the repair of sublethal damage. Since the standard method of determining the PAE in animal models is somewhat different from the method used for measurement of the PAE in vitro, the conditions under which the PAE is measured in vivo were also simulated in the in vitro model. This resulted in PAEs longer than those found by the standard method of obtaining in vitro PAE measurements. We conclude that the PAE of tobramycin, as determined by conventional in vitro methods, has virtually no clinical importance. PAEs determined in vivo may have some clinical relevance, but they are probably primarily caused by sub-MIC effects.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/1998; 42(4):749-54. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several aminoglycoside dosage regimens were studied in a kinetic in vitro model. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were exposed in serially placed artificial capillary units to netilmicin concentrations that changed based on human two-compartment pharmacokinetics. The same total dose per 24 h was administered as a continuous infusion (3.7 micrograms/ml) or in 1-h infusions given every 24 (24 micrograms/ml) or 8 h (8 micrograms/ml). The once daily administration showed the best response in terms of either faster killing of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus or greater reduction of the inocula of P. aeruginosa. After 28 h of treatment, however, all regimens reduced the nonpseudomonads by more than 99.99%, whereas all three P. aeruginosa strains regrew to greater than 10(8) CFU/ml due to selection of resistant subpopulations. In contrast to the bactericidal effect of the first dose, no killing occurred after subsequent doses if the ratio of peak drug concentration to MIC was low (less than or equal to 6). These results support the concept of administering high doses of aminoglycosides once every 24 h.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/1985; 27(3):343-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor